Amesbury’s Bagley Sisters and Mary Baker Eddy: Spiritualist with Patriot Pedigrees


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Sisters Mary Fowler Bagley (1816-1854) & Sarah Osgood Bagley (1820-1905) Daguerreotype Longyear Museum .

Sarah Osgood Bagley was one of Mary Baker Glover Eddy‘s first students. She was known as a Magnetic Healer (note her death certificate listed Mental Healer).

In July 1868 Sarah Bagley and Mary Baker Eddy made a house call to Amesbury’s poet  John Greenleaf Whittier who had been suffering from various ailments–the main issue he complained of was incipient pulmonary consumption which Whittier noted, “If Jesus Christ was in Amesbury, he would have to have brass-lined lungs to live here.” The Pulpit and Press Volume 54.

Eddy spoke with him for some time, “in the line of Science,” and by the end of their conversation he seemed much improved. As she left, Whittier called to her and said, “I thank you, Mary, for your call; it has done me much good.” Reports received the following day he was spotted in the village and in much better health and spirits. See Mary Baker Eddy and John Greenleaf Whittier

Mary and Sarah Bagley daughters of Lowell Bagley and Sarah/Sally Osgood, daughter of  Samuel Osgood and Anna Hoyt d. of  Joseph Hoyt and Lydia Jewell. Samuel Osgood son of Samuel Osgood and Anna Barnard. They also had a sister Emeline Bagley (1812-1892) married James Whittier, son of James Whittier and Mary Sargent.

Lowell Bagley was son of Isaac Bagley, (s. of  Timothy Bagley and Mary Thompson) and Mehitable Bartlett (d. of Capt. Stephen Bartlett and Ruth Currier). Stephen s. of Deacon Stephen Bartlett (s. of Richard Barlett and Hannah Emery) and Hannah Webster (d. of John Webster and Bridget Huggins).  Deacon Stephen’s brother was Governor Josiah Bartlett, first signer of the Deceleration of Independence who studied medicine in Amesbury, Massachusetts with Doctor Ordway. See Ordway Family and Colby, Osgood, Gove, Morrill, Jameson, & Other New England Old Names Genealogy and Grave Photos from from Ronald Colby data base Colby Family & Others

In Salisbury Vital Records there is a intention to marry: OSSGOOD (see also Osgood), Sally, and Lowell Bagley [of Amesbury. int.], Nov. 26, 1811. And From Massachusetts Town Records

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Mary and Sarah Bagley maintained a dressmaking and millinary business until Mary’s passing in 1864, and Sarah continued the business to support herself and her mother until sometime after 1868.  From Longyear Museum Digital Collection









Photos from the Longyear Museum site of the Bayley home 277 Main Street in Amesbury, Massachusetts where Mary Baker Eddy stayed on two different occasions. The house has been maintained by the museum, along with seven other historic houses in their collection that trace Mary Baker Eddy’s footsteps as Discoverer, Founder, and Leader of Christian Science.

I Sarah O. Bagley do hereby agree to pay Mary M Glover for instruction given me twenty five percent on the monies or income arising from my practicing or teaching that which she has taught me so long as I may practice or teach this her mode of doctoring the sick. I hold myself to this agreement. This has been changed to ten per cent for the past two years. Mrs. G offered to reduce it one half after the year 1872, after that reduced it to ten percent being the percent the others paid. It stands now in 1875 at ten percent. Have paid over two hundred dollars on the within, and she has refused to receive any more percentage on my practice…..Original transcript Agreement between Sarah O. Bagley and Mary Baker Eddy, April 23, 1870



Mrs. Longyear’s daughter Judith with her sons and a friend in the yard at the Amesbury house. From the scrapbook collection of Longyear Museum


For a full account of Mary’s story see “The Life of Mary Baker Eddy and the History of Christian Science.” by Georgine Milmine and The Mary Baker Eddy Museum The Life of Mary Baker Eddy

 Mary A Morse Baker (1821-1910) d. of Mark Baker and Abigail Bernard Ambrose and a direct descendant of Thomas Baker who immigrated from Kent County, England to Roxbury, Massachusetts. Mark Baker married Mrs. Elizabeth Patterson Duncan in 1850.
Mark Baker was son of Joseph Baker and Marion Moore McNeil daughter of John McNeil and Marion Moore. Joseph son of Joseph Baker and Hannah Lovell/Lovewell, daughter of Captain John Lovell/Lovewell and Hannah Smith.  Joseph son Thomas Baker and Sarah Pike, daughter of Rev John Pike and Sarah Moody, Daughter of Rev Joshua Moody and Martha Collins.
Mary Baker married 1st George Washington Glover (builder) and 2nd Daniel Patterson (dentist and homeopath) and 3rd Asa Gilbert Eddy. Also John Harriman Bartlett betrothed, but he dies in 1849. Abstract of Graves of Revolutionary Patriots about Joseph Baker.
Descendants Daughters of the American Revolution Lineage Book 1918 Volume 46

MRS. ELLEN CLEAVELAND PILSBURY PHILBROOK. 45057 Born in Wethersfield, Conn. Wife of Edwin Philbrook. Descendant of Eliphalet Pilsbury, Joseph Baker, and Joseph Baker, Jr.
Daughter of Luther Calvin Pilsbury and Martha Smith Baker, his wife.
Granddaughter of Moses Cross Pilsbury and Lois Cleaveland, his wife; Mark Baker and Abigail Ambrose, his wife. Gr-granddaughter of Eliphalet Pilsbury and Elizabeth Cross, his wife:  Joseph Baker, Jr., and Marion Moore, his wife. Gr-gr-granddaughter of Joseph Baker and Hannah Lovewell, his 1st wife, m. 1739.  Eliphalet Pilsbury (1751-1824) was placed on the pension roll of Rockingham Co., N. H., 1818, for service as private, Mass. Continental line. He was born in Newbury, Mass.; died in Chester, N. H.  Also Nos. 16085, 40437. Joseph Baker (1714-90) was a member of the Committee of Safety of Pembroke. He was born in Roxbury, Mass.;died in Pembroke, N. H. Joseph Baker, Jr. (1740-1816), served as a soldier in a New Hampshire regiment at Fort Washington 1779. He was born in Pembroke; died in Bow, N. H. Also No. 1423.






Sampler made by Sarah Osgood Bailey that is part of the Longyear Museum collection. When Mary Beecher Longyear purchased this house in 1922, it still held furnishings and personal memorabilia from the Bagley family. See “The History of a House: (built by Squire Bagley, in Amesbury, Massachusetts) Its Founder, Family and Guests.” by Mary Beecher Longyear.

Descendant of Starbuck Clan Rules Out Infamous First Tea Party of Nantucket and Romance Letter of Ruth Starbuck Wentworth


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Abe Books copy of Nantucket’s First Tea published by The Inquirer and Mirror Press, Nantucket, 1907 (Authors Ruth Starbuck Wentworth and Roland B Hussey)

The above book along with a letter depicting a romance of a young girl and her suitor Captain Norris of Boston. The letter, allegedly written on September 20, 1747 by a direct descendant of the Nantucket Starbuck settlers, Ruth Starbuck Wentworth was published in almost every newspaper and magazine around the country. On bottom of this post is the full letter from 1920 The Denver Post—you can also read An Idyl from Nantucket This is an example how Genealogy and family tradition can be misinterpreted, as one descendant, Alexander Starbuck will point out in his attempt to sort through fact and fiction.

The contents of the letter mention a cousin, Nathaniel Starbuck, JR returning to Boston from a voyage to China. According to The Literary Digest Rebecca represents her grandfather as walking “restlessly up and down the yard” looking for the returning wanderer, and Uncle Nathaniel Starbuck Sr. remarking with pride, “The boy will have many stories to tell.”

The Boston Transcript published this story under the heading of “The First Afternoon Tea-Party on Nantucket Isle,” and THE DIGEST (issue of December 27) quoted from it under the heading of “Early American Love-Story Retold in an Old Letter.” Alexander Starbuck, of Waltham, Mass, a direct descendant, in the seventh generation, of the Nathaniel Starbuck referred to in the story that as a piece of fiction he has no objection to it. “But when it poses as history,” he adds, “as it has in a hundred publications from Maine to California, I object.” He forwards also a letter which appears under his name in The Inquirer and Mirror, of Nantucket, in which he presents the following details, as showing the story’s present stage of development: “Grandma” is knitting some stockings for Nathaniel, Jr., “to take on his next voyage.” She writes of “Aunt Content” and “Aunt Esther,” “Uncle Edward Starbuck’s’ family,” “Lieutenant Macy,” and “Lydia Ann IvIacy,” all of whom are to partake of cups of tea brewed from a part of the contents of a large box of the herb procured by Cousin “Nat” in China.

Aunt Content hung a five-gallon bellnietal kettle with a plentiful supply of water on the crane over the fire and dumped in two bowlfuls of tea, to which Aunt Esther added another bowlful for good measure. This mixture was “boiled down to about a gallon.”

When the company, of which there seems to have been a dozen or more, all provided with silver porringers belonging to “grandpa,” had gathered to partake of this new refreshment, Cousin Nathaniel inspected it and told her that “a spoonful of this beverage would nearly kill any of us here at the table.”

They were then shown how properly to brew the tea and all went on happily ever after. The letter is dated from “Starbuck Plantation, near Madaket.” and the party is assembled on December 31. “to sit the old year out and the new year in.”

Now if this story were only given out as pure fiction it is amusingly interesting,_lmt it is usually invested with a historical halo which is certainly misapplied. I have received many inquiries from time to time regarding it from parties who evidently believed it true. I have received already five letters regarding this particular article, which is only a reprint of what has traveled the rounds of the American press several times in the past thirty-five or forty years.

As a matter of fact, there is little (very little) truth about it, and it is as full of anachronisms as a sieve is full of holes. When Mr. Starbuck first became acquainted with the story, he writes, “it was a modest little affair, occupying the space of perhaps four inches, and published in the Nantucket Mirror of nearly fifty years ago.”

Since then it has grown to such size that it has appeared in book form, “a very elaborate edition, really a work of art, largely in Old English text, and brilliantly illustrated in a manner that would assuredly have scandalized Nathaniel and Mary Starbuck and their descendants, nearly all of whom for a century wore the modest garb of Quakers.” The writer continues: It is quite noteworthy that some versions of the story give its date as September 20, 1735, and others September 20, 1747, the most of them following the latter date. There was no “Starbuck Plantation” on Nantucket. The Ruth Starbuck Wentworth, the alleged writer, calls Nathaniel Starbuck, Sr., her uncle, so that it would naturally follow that she was a daughter of one of his sisters. He had three sisters: Dorcas Starbuck, who married William Gayer; Sarah Starbuck, who married Benjamin Austin; and Abigail Starbuck, who married (1) Peter Coffin and (2) Humphry Varney; so that no immediate niece of Nathaniel Starbuck, Sr., and cousin of Nathaniel Starbuck, Jr., could have been named Wentworth.

“Aunt Content” and “Aunt Esther” seem also to be unknown quantities in that generation, nor was there any “ Lieu tenant” Macy. Furthermore, no native of Nantucket or resident there was dignified or burdened or distinguished by a middle name for some years after that date.

It will be noticed, too, that this party assembled on December 31, “to sit the old year out and the new year in,” but at that time December was, as its name implies, the tenth month and the new year did not begin until after the middle of March.

Ruth dates her letter September 20, 1747. She is, by her own account, so young that her relatives think her hardly old enough to marry and there were not a few early marriages in those days. Indeed she writes that her cousin mentions her as the “little dumpling of a cousin that he used to toss in the air when he was last at home.”

Assuming, however, that she was nineteen, it is interesting to see where the story leaves us. She would have been ‘ born in 1728. The grandfather (Edward Starbuck), of whom she writes that he “walks restlessly up and down the yard,” died in 1690, or thirty-eight years before she could have been born.

“Grandma” died many years prior to that, as nearly as I can determine prior to 1665. “Uncle Edward Starbuck” was a myth. The Uncle Nathaniel, who says “The boy will have many stories to tell,” died in 1719, or nine years before ‘the voluble and imaginative Ruth saw the light of day, and twenty-eight years before the date of the letter.

Another interesting reference to this letter is posted an Ancestry.COM board by Elaine Coffin Rebori stating it was found in the papers of Leroy Franklin Dick after his death. It was copied by Mr. Dick who asserted it was written by Ruth Starbuck Wentworth who had left that Island for a New Settlement. This letter has been handed down from generation to generation until it has reached J.C. Starbuck of Carmel, Indiana.

Jim Starbuck responded to Rebori: “Since no one had a middle name or initial that early in our history, the J.C. is patently fictitious, and the New York Public Library long ago exposed this piece as fiction written by Robert Collyer.”

Here is the family line: Nathaniel Starbuck, Sr., (1634-1719) was son of Edward Starbuck and Katharine Reynolds. He married Mary Coffin, daughter of Tristam Coffin and Dionis Stevens. Nathaniel, Sr. siblings  See full Records  Starbuck Genealogy Papers











Rev rom8


Sources and Further Reading to check out

  • Edward Starbuck Minor Descent
  • The Literary Digest, Volume 64 Edward Jewitt Wheeler, Isaac Kaufman Funk, William Seaver Woods

  • Nathaniel Starbuck Lambert M Surhone, Mariam T Tennoe, Susan F Henssonow Betascript Publishing, May 17, 2011
  • Early Settlers of Nantucket: Their Associates and Descendants
  • Keeping History “So you say your great-great-great grandfather is Tristam Coffin”:
    Using the Barney Genealogical Record Georgen Gilliam Charnes
  • Photo from Find A Grave contributor Bob Kenney, FIND A GRAVE MEMORIAL. Memorial to the founding mothers of Nantucket Island, erected in 2009 on Cliff Road in Nantucket, Nantucket, Massachusetts USA.
  • Historic Nantucket vol. 47, no. 1 (Winter 1998) The Eliza Starbuck Barney Genealogical Record Joan Elrick Clarke
  • 1296.-Edward-Starbuck
  • Starbuck Family by Bill Putnam
  • Nantucket Historical Association






Salem Witches? Puritans Thought So


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From October 1991

Asbury_Park_Press_Sun__Oct_27__1991_p1Asbury_Park_Press_Sun__Oct_27__1991_ 2Trask October 1991 1Asbury_Park_Press_Sun__Oct_27__1991_ trask 2

Check out these Sources:

Emerson Baker A Storm of Witchcraft





Fiske Family Genealogy and Photo Collection


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From my Blog Click Fiske Family Genealogy and Photo Collection

Eva Fiske, Caroline Walsh, Amos Fiske, Lewis Fiske, Mehitable Knowlton, William Walsh, Lucy Ball, Portsmouth NH, Lowell MA, Civil War, 7th Massachusetts Regiment, Rev Daniel McClenning, Eunice Parker Fiske. Cheshire NH, Parker Fiske, Mary Priest, Daniel McClenning, Thirza Gilbert, Elizabeth Richardson, Abijah Richardson, Mary Richardson, Dublin NH, Asa Fisk, Elisha Mann, Nathan Mann, Wrentham MA, Cynthia Mann, Samuel Fiske, Groton MA, Leonard Rabone, Moody Rabone, Moriah Mason Lodge, Sarah Waterman, Albert L Fiske, Luther Reynolds, Mahala Arnold, Frank H Fiske, Margaret Fisher, Harry Libby Fiske, David Brainard Fiske, Jane Libby, Nashua NH, Maggie Kilillea, Daniel Fiske, Ruth Chain, Sallie Robie, Josiah Libby, Ralph Fiske, Hazen Fiske, Polly Abbott Walker, Martha Ann Chase, Aaron Fiske, Tabitha Metcalf, Moses Eaton, Esther Ware, Esther Eaton, Daniel Fiske, Dublin NH, John Johnson, Lorenzo Johnson, Sophia Abbott, Adeline Fiske, David Sargent, Jenney Eastman, Amesbury MA, Nathan Johnson, John Johnson, Hannah Sargent, Alice Fiske, Frederick Fiske, Sarah Clark. Albert Stevens, Lancaster NH, Ohio, Clara T Fiske, James Fiske, Eunice Gleason, George Murdock, Maria Nichols, William Fiske,

Source: Fiske Family Genealogy and Photo Collection

Witch Will It BE: Salem Ancestors of 1692 Witch Trials


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swtI came across this article researching Carolyn Hart Wood’s line that is a direct link to Mary Towne Estey/Esty. It was published in 1993 in The News Journal Wilmington Delaware

Witch Estey

A letter from Robert Pike to Judge Curwin Salem Witch Trials 1692

In 1892 John Nurse, a descendant of Rebecca Nurse who was executed for witchcraft in the Salem Witch Hysteria 1692 gave an address on the Salem Witchcraft Trials to the Nurse Family Association. Rebecca Nurse was the  daughter of William Towne and Joanna Blessing of Topsfield, Massachusetts.Rebecca’s tow sisters, Mary Towne Esty and Sarah Towne Cloyse were also tried and executed for witchcraft in 1692.

nurse1885.jpgNurse Family Association, dedication of the Rebecca Nurse Memorial, erected July, 1885. The tall granite memorial is located in the cemetery of Rebecca Nurse Homestead, Danvers, Massachusetts. Photograph housed at Danvers Public Library part of the Archive Collection.

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One topic which John Nurse spoke on was the letter written in August of 1692 to Judge Jonathan Curwin (Photo below) singed with the initials “R P” which is agreed by most scholars to be Robert Pike, of Salisbury, Massachusetts. (Some believe this letter was written by Robert Payne).


I was intrigued by this article* published in The Springfield Republican 1879 entitled Our Boston Literary Letter. Puritans, Witches and Quakers The Life of Robert Pike

The letter delivered to Judge Curwin was dated in Salisbury, Massachusetts and in the handwriting of Captain Thomas Bradbury, Recorder of old Norfolk County. Bradbury’s wife, Mary Perkins Bradbury, was arrested for witchcraft and was jailed at the time as Rebecca Nurse.

Charles Wentworth Upham in his book Salem witchcraft; with an account of Salem Village, and a history of opinions on witchcraft and kindred subjects, Volume I and II provides a copy of the letter and is available on line University of Virginia site.

Pike was speaking for the victims, although many examples he refers to are his defense was gearing toward Mary Perkins Bradbury is probably correct. Pike was close with her family and he served in many civil positions with her husband Captain Bradbury.

It is certain that Justice Curwin took great stock in this letter as James Shepherd Pike points out,”the fact that Jonathan Curwin preserved this document, and placed it in the lilies of his family papers, is pretty good proof that he appreciated the weight of its arguments. It is not improbable that he expressed himself to that effect to his brethren on the bench, and perhaps to others.”

What is important to note is that Pike was extremely progressive and was under constant scrutiny despite his high position. (with exception of Rev Dane in Andover and Rev Hale in Beverly) he was a voice of reason and logic. Pike advocated for many including Thomas Macy, James Peaslee, and the three Quaker women of Dover made famous by John Greenleaf Whittier.

In a well written letter Pike brings into question the conduct of the judges, the validity of the hearings, and “controverts and demolishes the principles on which the Court was proceeding in reference to the “spectral evidence,” and the credibility of the “afflicted children” generally.

However, Rebecca Nurse’s case was definitely of interest. Her brother Joseph Towne married Phebe Perkins, daughter of Deacon Thomas Perkins and Pheobe Gould. Thomas was the sister of Mary Perkins Bradbury.

One of the motivations to target Rebecca was her connection with Quaker families. Douglas Bowerman, a direct descendant utilized the research Margo Burns compiled to trace his family line. The archival records  from Burns work reveal  that on April 26 1677 “a guardianship decision by the court allowing John Southwick to chose Frances Nurse (husband to Rebecca Nurse) to be guardian of his son Samuel and Thomas Fuller to be Guardian to his son John.”

Lawrence Southwick and his wife Cassandra were banished from Salem for their Quaker beliefs see Nutfield Genealogy Surname Southwick

Emerson Baker in A Storm of Witchcraft proposes that, “Suspicion may even have fallen on respected Puritan saint Rebecca Nurse because of Quaker ties,” when she assumed guardianship role for the Southwick children. In his earlier book, The Devil of Great Island: Witchcraft and Conflict in Early New England, Baker also notes that many scholars have uncovered evidence that several accused of witchcraft in the Salem 1692 Witch trials were associated with Quakers. Bakers asserts, household members, neighbors, , that were Quakers.”

There were connections and definite conflicts with families that were tied to Quakers.  I have published two articles in Genealogy Magazine on the PERKINS line. The first is “The Witchcraft Trial of Mary Perkins Bradbury” and second, her relative Lydia Perkins Wardwell, daughter of Issac Perkins, brother of Jacob Perkin, Mary’s father. Lydia suffered from the Quaker persecutions and was targeted by families who provided testimony that lead to her conviction. Lydia’s story  “Seventeenth Century Quaker Sought Redress by Undressing” describes the ordeal. I plan to publish a third article on how these families lines continue to intertwine. Most of the feuds can be traced back to early settlements all through New England.




Documents from The Salem Witch Trial Rebecca Nurse  The Petition Friends of Rebecca Nurse writing a letter on her behalf that all charges be dismissed against her, and Examination Document, 1692









  • The New Puritan: New England Two Hundred Years Ago: Some Account of the Life of Robert Pike, the Puritan who Defended the Quakers James Shepherd Pike
  • “Our Boston Literary Letter. Puritans, Witches and Quakers. The Life of Robert Pike – New Hampshire”  Springfield Rebublican Massachusetts Wednesday April 23, 1879
  • The Trial of Rebbeca Nurse History of Massachusetts
  • The Corwin genealogy : (Curwin, Curwen, Corwine) in the United States Edward Tanjore Corwin, 1834-1914
  • Letter of Robert Pike, 1692 written at Salisbury, Mass., August 9, 1692 Peabody Essex Museum
  • Full Account with transcribed documents Murder in Salem
  • “Our Boston Literary Letter. Puritans, Witches and Quakers. The Life of Robert Pike” article published
  • “The Broomstick Trail” Sarah Comstock Harper’s Magazine Volume 40
  • The Petition for Rebecca Nurse  History of Massachusetts
  • “Old Nurse House to be Bought by Historical Society ” December 11, 1905
  • A Storm of Witchcraft Emerson Baker

Photo Clips from the Archives Part 2


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Collected from the old newspapers. Images are no always clear, but if you did not have one of a relative or ancestor it is better to have the glass with a little taste than none at all.

1914 “Old Glory” World’s Largest Flag at St Louis Fair Read about “How the Flag Came to be Called Old Glory” Smithsonian Article by Sally Jenkins 2013

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In 1920 Amesbury, Massachusetts–Fannie and Hilda Brandwein, d. of Fishel Brandwein and Hilda Tanzer trapped in war ridden Austria and Galacia from 1914-1920. Brother Peter Brandwein—sports editor and writer for the New York Times. He made his start at the Amesbury Daily News.  He was also co-author for “The greatest sport stories from the New York Times; sport classics of a century.”



1920 Amesbury, Massachusetts Census listing family from American Ancestors and graph from family search. 

Firchek Brandwein Head M 51 Austria
Mary Brandwein Wife F 43 Austria
Morris Brandwein Son M 22 Austria
Luira Brandwein Son M 18 Austria
Bernard Brandwein Son M 16 Austria
Peter Brandwein Son M 9 Massachusetts
Harry Brandwein Son M 8 Massachusetts
Ethel Brandwein Daughter F 6 Massachusetts
Grace Brandwein Daughter F 5 Massachusetts


Dr. J. Benton Egee Serves his Community in Newton, Massachusetts. He protects the health and well being of the own of Newton. Delivered two of his babes by oil lamp. Always sporting a bow tie and had a thing for foreign sport cars. To read full article Click  Dr Egee Serves The_Bridgeport_Post_Sun__Jul_29__1962_


Judge Harold Hart appointed Prohibition Officer in New York. (The news clip has his middle initial G, but it should be L). From New York Times 1921. He was soon rung out  by E. C. Yellowley in 1922 Judge Hart 98966575


The First Boston Police Band 1921 and Leader of the Ban, Officer  Joseph Sullivan, s. of Patrick Sullivan and Mary Trant with Michael J. Crowley, Superintendent, and Edwin Upton Curtis, Boston Police Commissioner. Also that year Superintendent Crowley bans Love-Making on Park Benches and Kathleen M Horton O’Toole, First Lass to be appointed Police Commissioner.

Boston_Post_Fri__Jul_15__1921_9Boston_Post_Fri__Jul_15__1921_ Police




Dining Room of Ruth Peabody Durkee of Lynnfield, Massachusetts–tragic death due to a bolt of lightning. 1921


George J Pappas, son of John G Pappas and Angelina Kaseris of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He married Antoinette Marcopoulos, d. of Theophanous Marcopoulos and Jennie Kouteas.  United States Navy From Portsmouth Herald 1943


Roswell Saunders September 25, 1916 Boston Post Roswell Saunders, a driver in the American Ambulance Field Service in World War I, was awarded the prestigious French Medaille Militaire. While on route to collect the wounded in Monte Homme, also known as “Dead Man’s Hill,” Sanders’ ambulance was hit by a “Black Maria” from the German line.  Sanders was working with Edward Kelley, a new recruit, showing him the ropes. Just before the car was hit by the shell, Saunders recalled the moment in an interview: “As we neared the village of Marre, two shells landed about 150 yards away from us, and I turned to Kelley and said, ‘As these are the first shells you have seen, they sound pretty good, don’t they?’ and he answered, ‘Yes, if they don’t come too close.’” Kelley received full charge to the head and died instantly. Sanders was severely wounded. During his hospitalization, Saunders was nursed back to health by the heiress Virginia Fair Vanderbilt. His family back in Newburyport received letters from fellow officers praising the dedication and “splendid work,” and never knew “a more truer, selfless friend.” During an interview at the Saunders’ home at 7 Fruit St., his mother said he “loved his home and books” and his studies at Boston Art School. From Newburyport News “Remembering those who served.” Forgotten History Melissa D. Berry May 25, 2015 9 (Note Saunders was spelled Sanders)


Boston Post 1920 Maynard and Albert Russell twins of Foster Russell and Martha Hodgkins of Ipswich, Massachusetts born on October 10, 1834.


Lady Library Experts meet up at the Massachusetts Library Institute in 1922 Chandler, Horton, Jones, Hazeltine, Askew, and Warren–The smartest girls in the room!


The Red Lion Tavern George Washington’s Receipts Photo taken by John T Faris 1917 From Old Roads of Philadelphia. The National Archives and “George Washington’s Accounts of Expenses While Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, 1775-1783: Reproduced in Facsimile, with Annotations.” Read more on officers like Samuel Shute, surgeon for Bridgetown, New Jersey PDF References to Red Lion PA SeligPA146-229

Red Lion Tavern


To George Washington from Brigadier General Anthony Wayne, 21 September 1777

From Brigadier General Anthony Wayne

Red Lion [Pa.]1 21 Septr 1777: 12 oClock

Dear General

About 11 OClock last Evening we were alarmed by a firing from One of our Out guards—The Division was immediately formed, which was no sooner done than a firing began on our Right flank—I thought proper to order the Division to file off by the left, except the Infantry and two or three Regiments nearest to where the Attack began in order to favour our Retreat—by this time the Enemy and we were not more than Ten Yards distant—a well directed fire mutually took place, followed by charge of Bayonet—Numbers fell on each side—we then drew off a little distance and formed a Front to oppose to theirs—they did not think prudent to push matters further.

Part of the Division were a little scattered but are collecting fast—We have saved all our Artillery, Ammunition & Stores—except one or two Waggons belonging to the Commissaries Department.

Genl Smallwood was on his march, but not within supporting distance—he ordered his people to file off towards this place where his Division and my own now lay.

As soon as we have refreshed our Troops for an Hour or Two, we shall follow the Enemy, who I this moment learn from Major North are marching for Schuylkill—I can’t as yet ascertain our Loss—but will make out a Return as soon as possible, our Dead will be collected & buried this Afternoon.

I must in justice to Cols. Hartley, Humpton, Broadhead, Grier, Butler, Hubley & indeed every Feild & Other Officer, inform your Excellency, that I derived every assistance possible from those Gentn on this Occasion.2

Whilst I am writing I received yours of the 20th per Messrs Dunlap & Leamings, with the intelligence you wished to communicate3—It will not be in our power to render you such service, as I could wish, but all that can you may depend on being done by Your Excellencys Most Obedt Hble servt

Anty Wayne

N.B. The Two Letters you mention I never received—I have reason to think they fell into the Enemy’s hands, last Nights Affair fully evinces it.

Copy, in Robert Hanson Harrison’s writing, PHi: Wayne Papers; copy, PHi: Wayne Papers.

1. The Red Lion Tavern was at the site of present-day Lionville, Pa., about eight miles west of Paoli.

2. Wayne’s division was camped about two miles southwest of Paoli on the night of 20–21 Sept. when it was surprised by a large British detachment commanded by Maj. Gen. Charles Grey. General Howe wrote George Germain on 10 Oct. that “upon intelligence that General Wayne was lying in the woods with a corps of fifteen hundred men and four pieces of cannon about three miles distant and in the rear of the left wing of the army, Major-General Grey was detached on the 20th [Sept.] late at night with the 2nd light infantry, the 42nd and 44th regiments, to surprise this corps. The most effectual precaution being taken by the general to prevent his detachment from firing, he gained the enemy’s left about one o’clock, and having by the bayonet only forced their out-sentries and pickets, he rushed in upon their encampment directed by the light of their fires, killed and wounded not less than three hundred on the spot, taking between seventy and eighty prisoners including several officers, the greater part of their arms, and eight wagons loaded with baggage and stores. Upon the first alarm the cannon were carried off and the darkness of night only saved the remainder of the corps. One captain of [British] light infantry and three men were killed in the attack and four men wounded” (Davies, Documents of the American Revolution, 14:202–9).

John André, who was Grey’s aide-de-camp, says in his journal entry for 20 Sept. that “General Grey’s Detachment marched by the road leading to White Horse, and took every inhabitant with them as they passed along. About three miles from Camp they turned to the left and proceeded to the Admiral Warren, where, having forced intelligence from a Blacksmith, they came in upon the out sentries, piquet and Camp of the Rebels. The sentries fired and ran off to the number of four at different intervals. The piquet was surprised and most of them killed in endeavoring to retreat. On approaching the right of the Camp we perceived the line of fires, and the Light Infantry being ordered to form to the front, rushed along the line putting to the bayonet all they came up with, and, overtaking the main herd of the fugitives, stabbed great numbers and pressed on their rear till it was thought prudent to order them to desist. Near 200 must have been killed, and a great number wounded. Seventy-one Prisoners were brought off; forty of them badly wounded were left at different houses on the road. A Major, a Captain, and two Lieutenants were amongst the prisoners. We lost Captain [Williams] Wolfe killed and one or two private men; four or five were wounded, one an Officer, Lieut. [Martin] Hunter of the 52d Light Company” (André, Journal, 49–51; see also Muenchhausen, At General Howe’s Side, 34–35; Scull, Montresor Journals, 455–56; Lydenberg, Robertson Diaries, 149; and Baurmeister, Revolution in America, 115). For Wayne’s defense of his conduct on this occasion, see his letter to GW of 22 October.

3. This letter has not been found.

The Moores of “Rockmarge” at Pride’s Crossing

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Alex Dearborn, great grandson of William Henry Moore and Ada Waterman Small shared some family photos and history. I have also included photos and articles from other sources which span from late 19th century to 2010. Please check back more photos and information will be added. Thank you for visiting site.

Moore Family Genealogy

William Henry Moore: Nathaniel Ford Moore and Rachel Arvilla Beckwith; William Henry Moore and Carolyn Ford; Henry Moore and ; Henry Moore and Lucy Churchill

Rachel Beckwith daughter of George Beckwith; Carolyn Ford daughter of Nathaniel Ford and Caroline Reese; Lucy Churchill daughter of Samuel Churchill and Elizabeth Curtis.

Genealogy of Ada Small: Daughter of Edward Alonzo Small & Mary Caroline Roberts; Edward Small and Rebecca Pratt. Edward Small and Sarah Mitchell . Edward Small, (1751-1826), was detailed to work on ‘the Fort at Falmouth, 1775. He served as corporal under Capt. John Wentworth and Col. Aaron Willard, at the alarms, 1777. He was born at Scarborough and died at Freeport. Descendant of Corporal Edward Small, of Maine.

Mary Caroline Roberts: Benjamin Roberts & Clarissa Mitchell; George Roberts & Hannah Davis; Joseph Roberts & Ruth White; William White & Christian Simonton; John White & Lucy Wise; John Wise & Abigail Gardner; Joseph Wise & Mary Thompson; John Thompson & Alice Freeman.

Children of William Henry Moore and Ada Small Moore:

Hobart MooreHobart Moore (1879–1904) married Ruth Winthrop Emmons, daughter of J. Frank Emmons and Mary Winthrop Cook.


Edward Small Moore (1881-1948) married Jean Ray McGinley, daughter of John Rainy McGinley and Jennie Atterbury. Children: Edward Small Moore married Jane Childs Foster (daughter of Charles Addison Foster and Gertrude Childs) and Marion Moore married John Walter Cross.

Paulmoore5432 001MooreCollection1 001


Paul Moore (1885-1959) married Fannie Weber Hanna, daughter of Leonard C Hanna Children: Rev Paul Moore Moore, the 13th bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York married Jenny Mckean Children: Paul Moore, Rosemary Moore, Honor Moore, Susanna Moore, Daniel Moore,  Marian Moore, George Moore, and Patience Moore.  The Rt. Rev. Paul Moore, Jr., WWII Hero, XIII Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New York, Outspoken Advocate for Peace and Urban Justice, Has Died  Obit Photo from Alex Dearborn Collection and wedding announcement from New York Times October 31, 1909

nhc1-001777Above is a photo of Alex Dearborn, son of Frederick Meyers Dearborn and Pauline Hanna Moore in 1954 enjoying a ride probably at Myopia Hunt Club. Alex would ride his bicycle from the Dearborn Farm in Wenham, Massachusetts to the stables.

IMG_3jmcrA model of “Rockmarge,” road coach, built by Brewster in which William H Moore, AKA “Judge” Moore, won the coaching marathon race Hampton Court to Olympia (10.5 miles, 39 minutes, 48 seconds) in 1909.  Carriage Model from the Alex Dearborn Collection.

The Coach came “with its complete veterinary equipment inside, a pole of the substance of a yacht’s mainmast, and an old time post box bearing the words: “Royal Hail.” His coach was named after his Prides Crossing estate. The estate was named after his train line Rock Island. 

In 1902 Judge Moore and his brother James Hobart Moore formed the Rock Island management group with two others, together they became known as the “Big  Four” who bought out the Rock Island Co., a New Jersey corporation. (Moody’s Magazine, Volume 7) This business venture was the driving force that dubbed Judge Moore’s new hearth and stables at Prides Crossing, Massachusetts. 

Judge Moore was a renowned international horseman, exhibitor, and breeder. From his stables at”Rockmarge” champion hackney horses were bred and ribbons were won. His descendants were also prominent figures in the equestrian world and the Hollow Hill Farm and Seaton Hackney Horse Farm in New Jersey.  

Moorecollage-2016-06-16-1 Lord Lonsdale seated with Judge Moore. The Judge driving at Hampton Court London Horse Show 1909

WH MooreyyyyPhoto: Olympia Judge Moore with Lord Lonsdale Landriving “Rockmarge” with Charles Tuppen as guard. from  New York Times June 10, 1909 and featured in the Newburyport Daily News Article “Booming carriage industry brought Amesbury prominence

Photo: “The Prides, Top Right “Rockmarge” and Hale Street not far from Moore’s the entrance gates to friend and business partner Henry Frick, the RR Station, Spaulding gardens, and “Avalon,” home the Ayer family.  “Rockmarge” photo from Alex Dearborn Collection and the other are part of the Beverly Public Library Digital Collection. 

The Story of “Rockmarge” and the Moore Family:

Around the turn of the century Beverly, Massachusetts became a treasured locale for summering among the wealthy. An address between numbers 407 and 600 Hale Street was properly known as Prides Crossing, or “the Prides.”  Boston architects Herbert Brown and Arthur Little “transformed the seaside hamlet of Prides Crossing into a haven for Plutocrats, ” and one of the finest built was “Rockmarge,” home of Mr. and Mrs. William H Moore. (Stuart Drakes article, “Setting for Plutocrats,” was published in Historic New England Magazine in 2014)

In 1901 Judge Moore commissioned the firm of Brown and Little to construct a Georgian remodeling of 1870’s E. V. R. Thayer house.  According to Stuart Drake, architectural historian, when the tycoons of American industry erected their palaces along the Beverly shore line, the only sporting estate built during that era was “Rockmarge.”

The horse shows distinguished “Rockmarge” from the other estates who did most of their sporting outside their gates at private clubs nearby, like Myopia Hunt and Essex County.

The Moore’s catered to many local charities by hosting events on the estate and opened their home to the public to wander the gardens.

A few news clip announcements from the local paper from the “Rockmarge” days. The Show Horse Chronicle August 10 1922 noted the Beverly Improvement Society was organized in 1888, has for its object, “to improve and adorn the town of Beverly, and to preserve its natural beauties.” Its principal work has been the planting of trees, making triangles at the intersection of streets, improving station squares at North Beverly and Beverly and fighting the tent caterpillar. It is entirely officered by women, with an advisory board of men. It holds its annual meetings in September, its annual tea in January, and meetings of the society can be called at any time by the president upon written request of ten members. From “Beverly, Garden City by the Sea: An Historical Sketch of the North Shore City, with a History of the Churches, the Various Institutions and Societies, the Schools, Fire Department, Birds and Flowers; Beverly in the Civil War, Her Early Military History, Etc.” William C Morgan

In the New York Times article, “Judge Moore plans to build a Palace,” (1902)  the speculations were right on the mark in that the construction of “Rockmarge” would “supersede even the grandest marble palaces around.”

The project took two years and eight months to build with a cost of $24.58 per square foot (“North Shore Boston : houses of Essex County, 1865-1940” Pamela W. Fox) and Judge Moore did not scrimp or cut any corners. A $100,000 iron gate fence with two stone pillars bordered the property.  Landscape architects were brought in to design the gardens  The Arthur Little and Herbert W.C. Browne architectural collection housed at Historic New England has the original drawings and alterations made by the Moore’s in 1910-1914.


From the Washington Post February 6 1915 Interesting tidbit on the competition outside the horse ring whose name will be the titleholder of the Prides RR Station.

Mooreentr3Open porch overlooking the lawn and ocean at “Rockmarge.”

rockm2 001A view of the white Neoclassical mansion “Rockmarge” looking east from the driveway, ocean to the right. Note the glass roof over the entry. Driveway crowned for rain runoff, and covered in crush bluestone so fine you could walk on it with your bare feet.

Moorehall8The entrance hall of “Rockmarge,”which is the entry under the glass roof from the photo above. Alex Dearborn remembers Higgs, the butler, who would escort him in until he was in kissing length of Granny Moore.

adasmallmooreatrmAda Small Moore “Granny” standing on her porch waiting for that kiss. circa 1950


The Lord of “Rockmarge,” William H. Moore.  Coined “The Sphinx of the Rock Island” and “The Promoter.” In the cooperate ring he was a magnet for successful ventures. It seemed as if all he did turned to gold.  Judge Moore had “that gift of power upon men which no one can quite analyze or define” He was confident, but humble and was known to have a wonderful sense of humor. Like his hackneys, he “had a remarkable facility for movement.” (Deforest and Deforest)

His brother, James Hobart Moore shared many successful ventures with him.  A business profile from 1921 noted that if the Moore brothers “had been the owners of Aladdin’s lamp, they could not have transformed defeat into victory more magically.”  Hebert Casson in “Harvest of Gold,” The Romance of Steel and Iron in America,” noted the during fallow times the Moore boys never sweat the small stuff: “With cheerful indifference they had made and lost millions. Having promoted the Diamond Match Company, they went down with it when it foundered, losing four millions or more. In a single year, by floating the National Biscuit Company and the American Tin Plate Company, they paid their debts and had millions left.” In “Prominent and Progressive Americans,” a synopsis of their reputation and notoriety.  “Do you know Moore Brothers?” a Chicago business man was asked. “Who does not” was his reply. “Their vast and successful operations are the wonder of the business world.” The tribute was none too high for a firm that, after being caught in one of the most overwhelming panics of modern times, within a year paid off, in full, debts of more than $4,000,000, and continued in business with a clean record, a big bank-account, and the unhesitating confidence of the community. However, the Judge had more than the Midas touch. He possessed a formidable, independent spirit, known as “Yankee Iniquity.” His instinct to succeed was bred in him from the sturdy stock of his Mayflower ancestors.  In 1871 he wrote a letter to his parents mapping out his blueprint to “lay a foundation for a fortune.”  He was twenty-three years old and determined to make his own way in the world. He was proposing a business venture that would be taking him to “to newer country,” Montana. His strategy was risky, and supposed his parents saw it as a “a boyish freak” of his, but reminded them the word “fail” was not a word in his vocabulary. This letter clearly shows Moore’s self reliant nature and his deep desire and determination to create his own destiny–a true pioneer, and “Promoter.”

Judge Moore’s business partner and good friend,  Henry Clay Frick, built a “cottage” next door to “Rockmarge” called “Eagle Rock,” also designed by Little and Brown. Frick had purchased the house and stables of Robert S. Bradley.Photo of “Eagle Rock” from Beverly Public Library Digital Collection Beverly, Ma. Henry  Frick walking the beach near “Eagle Rock” in his later years from the Frick Collection. Info: The House That Frick Built.

The social climate was red hot and the top draw elite had fingered the North Shore as the place to be. Some of the famous figures dipping their feet in the Atlantic waters: H. J. Heinz, the Ketchup King, Richard T. Crane, Chicago’s Prince of Plumbing, and J. D. Rockefeller, JR. Within a few years’ time the Vanderbilt’s were hunting down space passing off Newport to summer at Prides. In 1919 horsemen William K Vanderbilt stayed a stone’s throw from “Rockmarge” at the Witchfield’s cottage “Smithmore.” (Boston Post)

swiftmorePhoto of “Swiftmore” also built by Little & Browne Architects from Historic New England Ada Moore purchased “Swiftmore” at the Provident Institute for Savings Public Auction after Judge Moore’s death in August 1932.

Judge William H Moore riding at Prides Crossing  “Rockmarge” and a lady guest riding with Stables in background.

StablesrockStable at “Rockmarge” before the wings were removed. The wing with the horse stalls and tack room is in the foreground, and the wing with the carriage is in the background, with the rotunda dome in the center. “Rockmarge” had a driving park and horse ring. The driving park was a figure eight tanbark with a side hill making it a national grandstand. It was a great opportunity for Judge Moore’s to show off his stock that made him famous on both sides of the Atlantic. The horse shows were some of the most memorable cherished events of the North Shore Season. According to newspaper reports the stables and race track doubled the cost of the house. Judge Moore had purchased three acres of the extensive pasture land transformed into a track forty feet wide and one third of a mile in length. It was located next to Pride’s Station and surrounded by a rustic fence.

The Moore’s held large public horse showings where proceeds would be turned over to the charitable organizations such as the Red Cross.  On August 18, 1914, The Moore’s hosted their yearly American Red Cross fundraiser and the press reported the event “dazzled the colony of Myopia and Essex County.”  Over 1000 spectators turned up to witness Judge Moore drive his four-horse team which won the $1000 prize and the Alfred Vanderbilt Cup. According to the Saddle  and Show Horse Chronicle Moore’s event put over $2,500 in the Red Cross treasury for the War Relief Fund.

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There were over 50 horses shown and admission was $2.50 a person. Lord Seaton and Lady Bountiful, two of Moore’s Champion hackneys made an appearance. His son Paul Moore and daughter in law Fanny Hanna Moore (daughter of Leonard C. Hanna and Fanny Mann), drove some new addition hackneys that would perpetuate the Moore legacy. The Judge arranged the show so that the public could get a close view of some of the winners. (Boston Herald)  Paul and Fanny summered at Prides Crossing and one of their favorite places was the Ahl Cottage, owned by friend Leonard D. Ahl.

Judge Moore and his brother James were considered the heaviest patrons and investors of show horses in the country. They were among the “Hackney fraternity,” a title dubbed by “Home and Field” in 1907. According to Saddle and Show Horse Chronicle (1917) William du Pont of Montpelier Farm in Virginia was the largest breeder of hackney horses in this country, but Judge Moore sired the best in breed.

The “Rockmarge” estate was Judge Moore’s main base, but in 1914 he expanded and purchased, along with son Paul H Moore an old driving range in New Jersey for breeding and training Hackneys. (More on the breeding farms below)

In 1903 Judge Moore went to England to purchase the finest Hackneys money could buy. He entrusted his great collection of show horses to George Chipchase, well known to every horseman and horse show enthusiast in the country.

According to Bit and Spur, Judge Moore had the most remarkable hackneys in the history of the show ring, but the public scarcely credited the amount of attention they receive from their owner  when the off-season approached.  The saying ‘when a man loves a horse it is very difficult to stay long away from it,’ definitely applied to Judge Moore. He never  neglected his horses and when the show rings were empty he spent all his spare moments devoted to his horses which he drove for several hours out of pure relaxation. He was also known for gathering congenial friends to lunch once a week and the main topic of conversation and entertainment centered around the horses. 

Moore Pride O PridesJudge Moore Photo: Motor, Body, Paint, and Trim Magazine Volume 43 1907

Moore Motor Body Paint Mag Horse ShowJudge Moore Motor, Body,  Paint, and Trim Magazine Volume 43 1907

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Slideshow of “Rockmarge” stables, stalls. and a tack room. The shows interior photos of the carriage room house:”Rotunda” under the dome. The temporary flooring in the center could be removed, revealing a turntable. Once the horses were un-harnessed, the carriages could be turned and pushed into the carriage room. After Judge Moore died (1923) many of the carriages were dispersed, and cars began to appear. Alex Dearborn remembers the two Packards and a small Rolls. His favorite, a 1940 Ford beach wagon, which he inherited in 1956 for a summer. His parents, Polly and Fred Dearborn had a few parties in this room. The Ruby Newman Orchestra played. He was still a young lad, but was able to peep in and watch the fun. A few newspaper clips from the society pages covering the horse shows and events, and an ad for “Rockmarge” hackney breeding. Moore had the most expensive show stable in the country. The four horses and coach he purchased in 1902 cost $28,000.

After a horse show or charity event the Moore’s always provided the best entertainment and luncheons.  Like one summer when the eighth regiment band played while tea was served down by their seashore gardens. “Rockmarge” drew a crowd and the estate had plenty of activities to offer, among them a bowling alley, tennis court, ballroom, and billiard room.

Adasmallmoorehome1 001The indoor bowling alley at “Rockmarge” located in the basement level with its own sitting room. Alex Dearborn was often a pin boy, a pretty good job if you were small and fast.

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Slideshow of family and guest enjoying various sport and/or leisure at “Rockmarge.” Paul And Fanny Moore summered in the Prides and when they were not at “Rockmarge” they stayed nearby. Photo of the group with the Moore’s enjoying a carriage ride from an article “Driving a Feature of North Shore Life Fashion and Beauty in Coaches Roll Daily Along Smooth Boulevards” on the carriage drive rage during the golden years.

Through the years several publications commented on the enormous patronage and great generosity of Mr. and Mrs. Moore. A 1917 article states, “she {Ada Moore} is exceedingly charitable in every way, but her favorite method is to educate the youth so they may be self-supporting by means of art and music.” (Article posted below)


From the San Fransisco Call August 6, 1911 recording the generous and benevolent nature of Ada Small Moore.

Judge Moore kept a tight rein in the ring, but a spirit of  largesse always trotted alongside. Often taking a hit, Judge Moore willing forfeited time from his business bankrolling the horse shows and The Saddle and Show Horse Chronicle notes, “he consented to sacrifice his business interests at Wall Street to give Western exhibitors and breeders the benefit.”

“It is Judge Moore,” claims Lenhart “whose unswerving loyalty and never falling generosity the National Horse Show owes much of its prestige to.” With horse show standards at a supreme high it was “good for the breeder, the handler, the harness maker and the builder of vehicles.” (Turf, Field, and Farm)

The Moore’s invited artists to live on their estate when they commissioned work. The work of one artist, Mr. Eugene Morahan immortalized prize-winning hackney mare Lady Seaton in a 94-inch casted bronze weather vane which sat atop the 8,000 square foot carriage house at Rockmarge for all to adorn.

When Lady Seaton made her debut The Bit & Spur noted “Lady Seaton is exceedingly artistic, happily unburdened by extraneous clothing, as should be the case where true beauty exists.” (Volume 12, 1912) In 2006 the vane was auctioned at Skinner’s fetching $32,900.00. At the time Judge Moore had his vanes made it was noted by that his “Probably the most expensive vane for a private home ever produced in this country was that made on special order for the late Judge W. H. Moore for his estate at Pride’s Crossing.”(American Folk Art 1978)




Eugene Morahan (American, 1869-1949) Hackney Horse Weather Vane Lady Seaton. Signed “EVG MORAHAN” on base, horse identified on base. Cast bronze weather vane, banner, directionals, and pedestal, with verdigris surface, c. 1912, total ht. 94 3/4 in. Provenance: According to a plaque accompanying the weather vane “This weather vane sat atop an 8,000 square foot Massachusetts carriage house owned by industrialist William Henry Moore. The weather vane was fashioned after Moore’s favorite prize-winning mare, Lady Seaton.

Other Vanes from the William H Moore Estates Also noted in “Folk Art in America: A Personal View” and A gallery of American weathervanes and whirligigs.”




Bronze Statuette of Lady Seaton The scintillant hackney mare owned by Judge William H. Moore. The statuette was modeled from life at Pride’s Crossing, of her era. This mare is one of the most sensational horse show winners Mass., by Mr. Eugene Morahan, 1911, the bronzebeing produced by Theodore B. Starr, Inc., Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. The bronze was a family present to Judge Moore, and, although in this case the camera scarcely does justice to the model, Judge Moore unhesitatingly declares the statuette beyond criticism.

Ada Small Moore supported all genres of all arts. In 1925 Mrs. Moore presented a gift of 1000,00 Francs to fund the excavation of the Punic capital led by Friar De Latte (a project connected with Franco-American Expedition). According to the New York Times the monk was beaming, but the large figures on the check took a few moments to sink in. The misty eyed monk filled with gratitude could not thank Mrs. Moore enough. Fr. De Latte was confronted with years of financial strain to keep the project going and Mrs. Moore’s gift was more monies than he collected in the whole forty years he was engaged in it.

Mrs. Moore recognized talent in fashion clothing designer Charles James, “America’s First Couturier” and fronted the funds for his salon on 699 Madison Avenue New York. Mrs. Moore was a friend of the family.  James’ career boost began in Chicago in 1926 when he opened a hat shop. Moore’s influence over Chicago social circles mustered a large ban of wealthy patrons which included Mary Slaughter Fields of Marshall Fields,  the Pirie’s of Pirie Department Store, Harold Fowler McCormick, Mrs. Edward Ryerson, wife of Ryerson Steel giant, and Edith Rockefeller and her son Fowler.


Vanity Fair Article “Gowned for Glory” by Laura Jacobs July 7, 2014

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 A few item from the Moore family Collections. As cited in the Frick Collection Archive’s Mrs. Moore’s collecting included paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, William Jewett and John Singer Sargent; Chinese bronzes, paintings, jades, and porcelains; Roman and early Christian glass; Persian miniatures and textiles; Luristan bronzes; Japanese woodcuts; and French Furniture. Included in Moore’s charity work was a gift of a scientific library to the American College in Teheran, Iran and received the Order of Elim, first Class. She also received the Greek Golden Cross of Saviour’s Regiment and was an honorary member of the community of Corinth, Greece. Moore was interested in Archaeological excavations in Iran and Greece and parts of her Oriental collection of tapestries and art were exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and at Yale University. Both Yale University and the Metropolitan Museum of Art received gifts during her life time and generous bequests from Mrs. Moore. The Chinese and Japanese collections at Yale University Art Gallery were built through the gifts and bequest of Mrs. William H. Moore. The Morgan Library has several Cylinders and other ancient oriental seals previously owned by Mrs. Moore. She procured and presented the Library of Congress with forty-six paintings for the Chinese pictures on “Tilling and Weaving” which were executed in the seventeenth century. Further readings: Three Bronzes in the Hobart and Edward Small Moore Memorial Collection J. LeRoy Davidson Bulletin of the Associates in Fine Arts at Yale University Vol. 21, No. 2 (1955), pp. 1-5

oip47_cover_5Ancient Oriental Cylinder and Other Seals with a Description of the Collection of Mrs W H Moore


In the 19th century, the Ancient Near East was thought to be something of a promised land. Western archeologists, artists and even private collectors were lured there in the hope of finding information about Biblical figures like Abraham, who was known to have come from Ur, in ancient Mesopotamia. But while their aim was to document biblical truth, they discovered instead one of the world’s great cultures.

After more than a century of collecting in the field, perhaps the most important American collection of Ancient Near Eastern Art is now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in a more expansive and comprehensive way than ever before.

The new installation on the second floor of the museum includes about 700 Ancient Near Eastern objects, more than the museum has displayed before, covering almost 7,000 years.

The heart of the collection of sculpture, seals, jewelry, metalwork and reliefs comes from Mesopotamia and ancient Iran, but there is also work from Anatolia, Syria and Arabia.

”In this country, it is certainly the only collection of Near Eastern Art that combines great archeological materials and great works of art,” said Prudence O. Harper, curator of the Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art at the Metropolitan.

Four-Year Project

The four-year project was organized by Mrs. Harper, with Holly Pittman, associate curator. The installation was conceived and designed by Etan Manasse and the architects were Kevin Roche/John Dinkeloo and Associates.

The display also includes works on loan, among them the late Mrs. William H. Moore’s collection of cylinder seals, now belonging to the Rt. Rev. Paul Moore Jr., Episcopal Bishop of New York, as well as objects belonging to Norbert Schimmel, a retired businessman whose private collection of Ancient Near Eastern art is described by Mrs. Harper as ”unparalleled in its importance.”

The Ancient Near East has been called the cradle of civilization. It is believed that writing began and city states developed there. It extended from western Turkey to Afghanistan and the Indus Valley, and from the Caucasus Mountains in the north to the Arabian Peninsula in the south.

The Metropolitan’s display of Ancient Near Eastern Art begins around 6,000 B.C. and continues until the beginning of Islamic rule in the seventh century A.D. With the present installation, the galleries of Islamic Art now begin where those of the Ancient Near East end.

Many of the animal and human forms in the collection are simplified geometric shapes. The purpose of the objects tended to be ceremonial or religious.

”The Sumerians were not interested in portraying a realistic image of the animal,” Mrs. Harper said, in front of a Sumerian copper vessel stand with an ibex support. ”What interested them more was the spirit or force or concept behind the animal. They wanted an abstraction of the spirit of the animal that could hold that spirit inside it.”

While the frontality and simplification of Assyrian reliefs and Sumerian statuary suggest Egyptian sculpture, Ancient Near Eastern art has its own identify – generally less regimented, more varied.

”There is a solidity and blocklike quality to Sumerian sculptures,” Mrs. Harper said, ”but there is also a quietness and delicacy. We see figures in suppliant positions before the gods they revered. Their big eyes are directed toward the gods in a stylized yet worshipful way. The sacrifice of natural features and form to an exaggeration of one of those features or forms so that the figure ends up expressing a feeling is the sort of thing that caught the interest of the modern artist.”

”Many of these objects were for the care and feeding of the gods, to keep the gods happy,” she added.

The installation includes an important number of seals. ”Seals are for us what wall paintings and miniatures are to the Islamic world,” Mrs. Harper said. ”Mythological scenes, as well as our information about kings and gods are preserved on them and are not preserved in any other medium or material.”

Other highlights include Babylonian painted lion reliefs, and a finely carved bronze Iranian head that seems, unlike most other Near Eastern objects done at that time, to have been based on close observation of an actual individual.

Mrs. Harper also cited an antelope from Iran where the head, antlers and tail move just enough to break the two-dimensional plane of the body and create a keen sense of alertness and expectation.

“Rockmarge” was known for its magnificent landscape. The estate had a lily pond, lotus collection, willow walk, rock gardens, herbaceous borders, stone steps, walls and walkways, and seaside flower beds.  “Bowered in the cool green of Rhododendrons the lily pool at the dwelling of Judge Moore irresistibly allures on hot midsummer days.” (Nichols)

53121f0bdf992_157030b  1905 Ad Lord & Burnham Greenhouse Judge William Moore Prides Crossing MA

The greenhouse was another wonder added designed by Lord & Burnham of New York. In 1904 the grounds were laid and it took 200 men to spread ten thousand yards of loom rolled in from West Peabody, Massachusetts by special train. Harlan P. Kelsey was the Moore’s landscape architect and his designs were noted as some of the most exquisite, breathtaking ever done on the North Shore.




In 1925 Mrs. Moore, Harriet Boyden, the Ayer sisters {Beatrice Ayer and Katherine May Ayer}, and other colonist from Myopia Club held a fundraiser for Christ Episcopal Church on “Rockmarge” lawns. The orchestra, tea, and cakes paled in comparison to the four legged guest of honor, who were some of the “fleetest whippets in America.”Although these hunters were often coined “the poor man’s racehorse” they rose to the occasion and won the hearts and the purses of their guest. The money was raised for the North Shore for the Prevention of Cruelty toward Children.

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Mrs. Moore understood the culture of flowers and her exhibits were featured at garden shows and photographed by all the magazines. The famous botanist Denys Zirngiebel who ran the Arboretum at Harvard University held Mrs. Moore in high regard. He knew of her fondness for carnations and named one of his white French variety after her, because it was “the most perfect in form.” (Lonsdale)

Zirngiebal was not only famous for his green thumb, he was the subject in “Christmas Morning, or Winter 1913”, by N C Wyeth painting.  His daughter Henriette Zirnhibel married Andrew Wyeth. (Below photos of Zirngiebal and painting)

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Slideshow of “Rockmarge” buildings and some of the interior rooms. The rooms reflect Ada Moore’s exquisite taste. A definite love of diverse culture and her patriotic spirit. An ocean view is breath taking from a bedroom, probably one of the guest room. Staff housing for “Rockmarge” Buildings along south side of Route 127, just East of Rail Road tracks in Prides Crossing. Across from Judge Moore’s race track property. The race track barns and shed. Jim Mullen purchased this property used it for business Mullen Advertising. The house burnt down in the 80’s.

 Judge Moore died on January 11, 1923.  Although Mrs Moore was surrounded by her family and friends it was obvious she missed her other half.  The New York Times  announced that “the Edward Small Moore’s of Chicago” were summering with her at “Rockmarge,”  and she would be “passing the season quietly.” (Society Pages 1924) The Boston Herald noted the following year she “misses the touch of life and color of those days” when her “Judge” was there. (June 1925)

In 1932 Mrs. Moore purchased the mansion “Swiftmore” on Paine Ave built by Edward Carleton Swift, owner of the largest meat packing operation in the United States, Chicago Meat Packing Company. Swift began his career as a “chore boy” and made millions in meat and wool. After his wife Florence Bailey Swift died “Swiftmore” was passed to the daughter, Mabelle Swift. Mabelle married Clarence Moore, who perished on the Titanic. She married Axel Wichfelt in 1932.

Mrs. Moore was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and Society of Colonial Dames. Her mother, Mary Caroline Roberts Small and sister Joanne Small Moore were also members. A true patriot, Ada Moore gave generously both her time and resources to war relief. She was on the American Bureau for Medical Aid to China, the British War Relief Society, Inc. and hosted fundraisers for Bundles for Britain.

During the 1942 season Rev Bradford H. Burnham, of the St. Pauls Church Beverly Farms “instigated” and impromptu beach party for the thirty fliers at Beverly Airport Training School of the Army and Navy. Mrs. Moore agreed to host it on the “Rockmarge” beach front, but could only gather four good lookers (5 including herself) on the fly.  Despite the high ration of lads to lasses, the fliers still had a good time and a repeat was already in the works.

In the fall of 1942 many of the grand palaces that lined the North Shore remained open and the weather was exceptionally nice. Homes from Nahant to Rockport, usually closed, remained open until after Christmas.

According to The Chicago Tribune, Halloween was a gay season in 1942 on the North Shore, despite the war. The Red Cross was kept busy as the socialites found inventive and lively ways to help with the war effort.

Mrs. Moore was one of the ringleaders organizing the events for the United Nations Relief Program. She hosted Victory dances, candy drives and golf outings. Many of her events were co hosted with Helen Frick.  All the medal that could be dismantled from the estates to contribute to the Word War II scrap drive was made available. The iron fences that secured their stately gardens were torn down and the metal bars from Judge Moore’s stables were removed for the cause.

In 1957 “Rockmarge” was torn down with the exception of the bath house and stables. The new occupant Lawrence Lowell Reeves remodeled the stables into a party house which was hosted both daughter’s coming-out balls. Cassandra and Corinna Reeves made their debuts, along with other debutantes. Alex Dearborn attended and said they were splendid evenings, very much like the parties thrown by his grandparents, Paul and Fanny Moore. He recalled a ball which the Ruby Newman Orchestra played and guests danced within the bounds of carriages which Judge drove in his shows.

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“Rockmarge” opened for the season from the Alex Dearborn Collection

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Slideshow of the Gardens at “Rockmarge.” Featured in several magazines.  The walk way photo was featured in Garden and Home Builder Magazine (Volume 32, 1920)

More Tales from the archives

E. J. Ted Williams, former horse trainer, carriage driver, and employee of Judge Moore said it best “Of all the men I worked for, Judge Moore was the tops, the tops in the world.” (New York Times, 1978)


Williams asserted that Judge Moore was “one of the world’s most enthusiastic and freespending horsemen,” and “the greatest guy in the world.”

It was the “prime days,” Williams asserted, “when a stable master was riding high, just like Wall Street men” that horsemen like Judge Moore was among the “patrician families that could afford such extravagance,” which resulted in “first and carriage competitions.”

He recalled the time when Judge Moore wanted to enter his horses and carriages in a competition in England. “He chartered an ocean liner,” says Williams, “and hired a staff from Lloyd’s of London to transport 50 horses, four coaches and string of carriages, plus his own private trainers.”

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Moore JudgeThe_Inter_Ocean_Sun__Oct_26__1902_News Clips from “Society and Horses Ready for the Show” Inter Ocean October 1902

Judge Moore was surrounded by American heiresses, European princesses like the Lady Beck, the wife of Sir Adam Beck, of London. Lady Beck would be the first horsewoman to judge a national horse show and Judge Moore fully supported her position.

His brother James, whom he was very close with had a summer home in Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, known as “The Newport of the West.” In the late 1800’s wealthy Chicagoans erected summer mansions that lined the shoreline of the Geneva Lake. In 1901 James Moore moved into “Loramoor,” and the Moore brothers would utilize both estates to enjoy their equine sporting.

lamour1 001James Hobart Moore estate in Lake Geneva. By July 20, 1916, after James’ death the estate was valued at $15 million. “Loramoor,” a 16,000 square foot, three-story Elizabethan-Gothic home. The house was designed by architect Jarvis Hunt. The property included a 27-room main house and 30 separate buildings. The stables were the finest around and “a model of comfort, luxury, and elegance, built to accommodate 60 horses in oak stalls trimmed with brass and leaded glass partitions separated carriages from stalls and.” (Historical Society) It was done in Bavarian-style, a block long on each of its two levels and contained 18,000 square feet. There was sufficient room for sleek carriages, training areas, and sleeping quarters for grooms and veterinarians. (Lake Geneva Historical Commission) He bred Boston Terriers, owned a private rail car and had his own barber shop and race track.


The Moore’s would be one of the families to sponsor a yearly holiday for the less fortunate. Boys and girls from Chicago would take a vacation and stay at the club house known as “The Holiday” located on the Geneva Lake. They would enjoy expensive meals, carriage rides, horseback riding, and other fun recreation.

MooreJames.jpgClick to read more on James Moore Chicago Horse Show

Another event hosted right at “Loramoor” annually was the Mid Summer’s Fair. The feature would include prize grapes, cauliflower, chickens, and the maypole dance. A parade of fine horses, carriages, and automobiles from James Moore and family, including Judge Moore. (Morning Star Rockford, Illinois 1912)

Home of James Hobart MoorePhoto of home of James Hobart Moore from Digital Archives Library of Congress

James and Josephine had only one son, Nathaniel Ford Moore (1884-1910) who died at age 25 of heart disease. Nathaniel dodged a serious injury while driving in a Chicago horse show in 1902. He fell from his cart and rolled beneath the feet of a big gelding driven by his father. The horse shied missed by a few inches. Two woman fainted and several screamed, however Nathaniel picked up his hat, dusted it off and jumped back to take the Blue ribbon. (The Inter Ocean, Chicago)

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When he married Helen Francis Fargo, heiress to the Wells Fargo fame in 1905 the president of the Chicago Horse Show Association made a gift to the new bride of “May Morning,” a chestnut mare to encourage her fondness of riding and driving. (Washington Post 1905)

Before the Moore brothers secured a permanent financial dynasty they suffered two severe reversals of fortune. During one of their financial freezes James Hobart Moore received a generous offer from a coachman that had been in his service during the Diamond Watch operations.

According to the Pittsburg Daily Post, William Beattie, his coachman loaned $2,000 to the multimillionaire turned pauper. James knew the money would just be a temporary “tide over” and vowed to pay it back, which he did many times over.

As soon as the Moore’s were back on top James Hobart “placed Beattie in some way of investments earning him over $1000,000.” On the day of James’ funeral Beattie told the reporter, “Anyone who worked for Mr. Moore would have done what I did.” (Pittsburg Daily Post 1916) Beattie remained the coachman for Josephine Small Moore, several years after James’ death.

AdaMoore1Ada Waterman Small b. Aug. 17, 1858, in Galena, Illinois. Daughter of Edward Alonzo Small and Mary Caroline Roberts. Ada’s father, Edward Small was a distinguished, cooperate lawyer in Illinois. In “The History of Jo Daviess County, Illinois,” a profile of Edward Small cites the following: “The people of Jo Daviess Co. claim him with pride as one of the many distinguished graduates of the lead mine city. He has achieved his success in the presence of obstacles which only the most indomitable energy and courage could have surmounted, and these qualities, coupled with excellent judgment and a thorough mastery of his profession, have given him his present position.”  (1878)  An obituary in the Chicago paper shows the deep admiration that was felt among citizens for Mrs. Mary C Roberts Small, daughter of Benjamin Roberts and Clarissa Mitchell stating she “represents the bravest and purest type of Illinois womanhood.” (1914) Ada married W H Moore on Oct. 31, 1878, in Chicago, at the home of her parents on Indiana Avenue, by the Rt. Rev. Charles Edward Cheney. 



Small military chest

Homestead Edward Small Moore



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Collection of Moore family photos from Alex Dearborn Collection 

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Judge Moore at Horse Shows 1910-1917 From Harris & Ewing Photographers Collection Library of Congress. First Photo Judge Moore with Mrs Hitt 1916, Second Photo Judge Moore far right next to P. G. Gerry with & 2 unidentified, 1911.  Third Photo Mrs. C. A. Munn & Miss Harriman 1917, Fourth Judge Moore with N. A. Milles & P. V. Degraw 1911, Fifth & Sixth Photos from Bain News Service 1910 & 1910 Library of Congress.

wagonettebreak2Judge Moore was a genuine horse lover and was very much involved in coaching and horse shows. His stables were called “The Rockmarge” at Pride’s Crossing, Massachusetts, and were among the best in the world.  Originally, Judge Moore utilized Standardbred trotters because he loved to drive fast-moving horses.  He later realized that high-stepping Hackney horses would make the finest heavy harness horse in the show ring.   Owning and showing the finest in the world, Judge Moore began the Seaton Hackney Farm near Morristown, New Jersey, which is now a public park.  Judge Moore often took his horses and coaches to England to compete in such famous shows as Olympia. This carriage was housed for many years in the collection of the late Evan Shaw, Los Angeles, California, and was purchased by Stewart Morris and Stewart Morris, Jr., in November of 1984 and was restored to its original colors. From Carriage Museum of America

CarriageJudgeMoore2Photo From Myopia Hunt Club Driving Club Rear of Judge Moore’s Rockmarge. Owned and driven by Dr. Tim Butterfield.

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studsMoore6Photos taken From Home and Field Magazines 1915-1919 Field Publications, Inc.

The_Brooklyn_Daily_Eagle_Thu__Apr_8__1909_.jpgJudge Moore Brooklyn Horse Show From Brooklyn Daily Eagle April 8 1909



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Judge Moore and son Paul Moore ran the Seaton Hackney Farm near Morristown, New Jersey and were known to be one the finest hackney breeders in the country. Baily’s Magazine of Sports and Pastimes noted that Judge Moore “must have an accumulated “corner,” for his Hackneys and Hackney bred horses as Olympia demonstrated that.” (1915) The family maintained a high standard even during the darkest times. Shows were held for the war cause and other worthy charities. Home & Field mentioned that hackney breeders in the context of war, “feel as though they are in the front line trenches and must make the best possible showing while the reserves are coming up and until the signal is given to go over the top.”  It is the Judge whose “unswerving loyalty and never falling generosity the National Horse Show owes much of its prestige to.” (Lenhart) He had “that gift of power upon men which no one can quite analyze or define” He was confident, but humble and was known to have a wonderful sense of humor. Like his hackneys, he “had a remarkable facility for movement.” (Deforest and Deforest)

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moore008.jpgIn 1914, the wealthy tycoon W.H. Moore and his son Paul acquired the Driving Park, extending their interest in hackney horses to include a breeding facility. They upgraded the barns and track and renamed the property Seaton Hackney Farm for the stable of colts and fillies they brought with them from Virginia. Posh athletic clubs continued to hold fancy horse shows there, further solidifying its reputation as a focal point of fashionable sport. Paul Moore and his wife Fannie built their expansive estate on an adjacent hill above the track and named it Hollow Hill Farm, where they bred and showed their fine horses. Acclaimed for their prize-winning Seaton Hackney horses, one mare stood above the others. The grand Seaton Pippin, a hackney mare who won 203 blue ribbons and seven grand championships, retired undefeated in 1932. After her husband’s death in 1959, Fannie Moore donated Seaton Hackney Farm to The Morris County Parks Commission to use as a riding school. From “And They’re Off: The tranquil atmosphere at Seaton Hackney Stables belies its thrilling history.” Carolyn Dorsey, North Jersey History & Genealogy Center


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Rockx3 001Alfred E T Rogers Gardner at “Rockmarge” for over 40 years. Below April 23, 1958


Obituary on Rogers from Wednesday April 23, 1958 Boston Herald


gardenrockmarge2 001.jpg             Calling Card of “Rockmarge” Gardens from Alex Dearborn Collection

IMG_5605The Ayer Sisters Beatrice Banning Ayer and Katherine May Ayer, daughters of Frederick Ayer and Ellen Barrows Banning. Summered with the Moore’s in Prides at their cottage, fittingly called “Avalon.” Beatrice married George S. Patton and Katherine married Keith Merrill, know for his involvement with the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives section of the U.S. Army (MFAA) in 1945 when the United States shipped German owned paintings from the Wiesbaden Collecting Point to Washington. To read about the Ayer estates check out Barbara Poole’s Life From The Roots If you Like Louis Comfort Tiffany, you will love this Boston House! and on Keith Merrill and Avalon see Monuments Men and the Lowell Connection

avalon1“Avalon” was the built in 1907 by the industrialist Frederick W. Ayer on Paine Avenue in Prides Crossing. The grounds were landscaped by Frederick Law Olmstead. The house was torn down, December 1994. Photo From NOBLE Digital Heritage, Item #11673

DzPhoto of  Henrietta Zeller  and Denys Zirngiebel.  Their daughter, Henriette Zirngiebel, married Andrew Newell Wyeth, who owned a grain business in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Andrew and Henriette Wyeth were the parents of Newell Convers Wyeth. The Wyeth home lay next door to the Zirngiebel home on South Street. Both homes can be seen in Wyeth’s work. The Zirngiebel home, and Denys Zirngiebel himself, were the subject of Wyeth’s painting, “Christmas Morning”, which is in the collections of the Needham Historical Society. Henriette Wyeth Hurd, Carolyn Wyeth and Andrew Wyeth were painters; Ann Wyeth McCoy was a composer; and son Nathaniel Wyeth was an engineer and inventor with many patents to his credit.

Wyeth-Christmas-MorningFather And Son Shovel Snow In Front Of House, “Christmas Morning,” By N C Wyeth.

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MooreRockafter sale


Edward S Moore CF34Edward Moore CF1Circle M. Farm Kentucky owned by Edward S Moore from 1940 taken by Lafayette Studios photographs part of Kentucky Digital Library Collection

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Moore Edwards S familyPittsburgh_Daily_Post_Tue__Feb_9__1915_

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Moore Edward S 110 foot Asbury_Park_Press_Fri__Jul_6__1951_




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Sources to Consult

  • New York Tribune August 9 1914
  • Beautiful Land of the Sky: John Muir’s forgotten Eastern Counterpoint Harlan P Kelsey Loren M Wood 2013
  • Descendants of Edward Small of New England, and the Allied Families, Volume 1 Lora Altine Woodbury Underhill
  • Video Beverly of My Dreams
  • Video: Frick and Family Film
  • Boston Herald August 3 1924
  • Boston Post February 7 1904
  • Ada Small Moore: A friend of Robert Strong Woodward
  • Ruth worked for H C Frick at Eagle Rock
  • Carriage House Keeps Rockmarge Era Alive
  • Home & Field Magazine Volumes 27 & 28
  • San Francisco Call August 6, 1911
  • Washington Post February 6 1915
  • Boston Herald March 13 1935
  • Boston Post March 25, 1902
  • Boston Journal June 2, 1904
  • Who’s who along the north shore of Massachusetts Bay 1915 Salem Press Co.
  • “Lady Seaton Vaned.” Bit and Spur Volume 12 February 1913
  • New York Times March 12, 1912
  • 1942 Scrap Metal Drives
  • Ada Small Moore Frick Collection
  • Skinner Auction American Furniture & Decorative Arts – 2337
  • North Shore Boston Houses of Essex County
  • Lineage Book 14 Daughters of the American Revolution 1902 Ada Small Moore #13969
  • A Comfortable Well Arranged Home The Frick Collection
  • Boston Journal September 15, 1904
  • The Field Illustrated December 1920
  • Bit & Spur Volume 11 1912
  • Chicago Tribune November 12 1942
  • Beverly Revisited Arcadia Publishing 2010
  • Breeders Gazette Volume 50  J.H. Sanders Publishing Company, 1906
  • Washington Post June 18, 1911
  • Charles James: Beyond Fashion. Harold Koda, Charles James, Jan Reeder
  • “How Charles James became America’s first-ever couturier: New book sheds light on the designer who pioneered zippers and inspired Christian Dior’s New Look.” Misty White Sidell
  • The Frick Collection Finding Aid for the Helen Clay Frick Papers, Series III: Iron Rail Vacation Home, 1912-1972
  • Helen Frick and the True Blue Girls Hamilton Wenham Library
  • “Well Known People at North Shore. Thoroughbreds of the Tweed Stable Share” Boston Journal May 26, 1904
  • Top Drawer: American High Society from the Gilded Age to the Roaring Twenties Mary Cable
  • Land of Mrs Leonard Ahl at Beverly Farms, Beverly, Mass. Shows Hale Street, Oak Street and Valley Street, Collections Historic New England
  • Harper’s Weekly Volume 39
  • The Saddle and the Horseshoe Chronicle Volume 7
  • “Rock Island-Frisco Financing” Robert W. Vincent 1909 Moody’s Magazine, Volume 7
  • “Driving a Feature of North Shore Life Fashion and Beauty in Coaches Roll Daily Along Smooth Boulevards” Boston Journal August 16, 1903
  • Office Catalogue Chicago, Illinois International Livestock Exposition
  • The White Blackbird: A Life of the Painter Margarett Sargent by Her Granddaughter Honor Moore
  • “Fliers Beach Party at Rockmarge” August 27, 1942 Boston Post.
  • Where man and nature work in harmony: The Lilly Pond at “Rockmarge ,” Prides Crossing, Massachusetts” The Garden Magazine Volume 33 1921
  • “A Horse Fancier Retains Zeal at 93” Bryan Miller, New York Times November 26, 1978.
  • Sotheby’s New York: Thursday, December 12, 1991. The Ada Small Moore Collection of Ancient Near Eastern Seals.

  • A Study of Chinese Paintings in the Collection of Ada Small Moore. [Distinguished Scholars, Feast Before Parting Oxford University Press, 1941

  • Folk Art and American Modernism Exhibit July 18, 2015

1864 Photos Fort Pickering Salem Massachusetts


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Ruthie Stearns, Gr Gr Granddaughter of Joseph Oliver Stearns shares some of Joseph’s stories from his journal and photos from Fort Pickering (Winter Island) Salem, Massachusetts. Stearns Family Project Photos and History

Dennett&Sterms.jpgJoseph living in Amesbury, Massachusetts was a Private in the 3rd Unattached Company, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia) Mustered in for 90 days’ service May 3, 1864, and on duty at Fort Pickering, Salem, Mass. Mustered out August 5, 1864.  All Photos from Stearns Family Collection Please DO NOT COPY WITHOUT PERMISSION

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Joseph left  Newburyport Monday, May 2, 1864, with city cadets, to Readville, refers to as Camp Meigs.

On May 13, transfers to Fort Pickering about noon. Gr He’s drilling or on guard duty, eats lots of soup, bread and beans. On May 11, the soldiers escorted the 26th Regiment to the depot. (26th Massachusetts Regiment was on leave March 22 through May 20, having been most recently in New Orleans.

Visit Mr. Peabody in Salem with his sisters Susan and Sarah. Maybe Sarah True, of Salisbury, a friend of Sarah and Susan Stearns married a John F. Peabody of Boxford MA, per census, she’s the same age as Susan.  In 1870 census John Peabody and Sarah living in Salem, she’s the right age, and they have several young children, oldest about 9.

Then visits Mr. Glaziers ans Susan, sister of Peabody there. He home for a weekend May 24-26 1864.  Visits with his “girlfriend,” Helen Dennett (married in Amesbury MA 1 JAN 1867)  She went with him to Depot when he leaves Amesbury, Massachusetts. Helen writes in her journal for the same date that she “drove the horse back alone” which she would not have done before.

In his entries Joseph mentions the weather, what guard duty he was on and with whom, who he received a letter from and who he wrote, and any church services or lectures he might have attended.

He attends the military funeral for a Lieutenant Wheeler on June 9 1964 (per civil war records Richard P. Wheeler died June 2, 1864 from woulds rec’d in battle, residence Salem, place of death Fortress Monroe, Va)

Sometimes on guard duties at Fort Lee, also goes there to drill in big guns.  Has leave  again June 18-20 1864.

He goes for a sail with Rufus Greenleaf to Beverly Farms.  And another day they went over to Marblehead in a boat.  Rufus Greenleaf is from Newburyport, Massachusetts s. of Jeremiah Greenleaf and Mary Ann Lamson. He married  Mary Jane Gowren “Jennie” Emery. Rufus d. at Newburyport, June 21st, 1880, buried at Oak Hill in Newburyport. Mary Jane married 2nd William Stone Coffin.

One day he helps mount gun in Ft. Pickering, another day moved ninety six barrels of powder from one magazine to another at Ft. Pickering.  He left Fort Pickering August 5.  went to the State House in Boston and mustered out in Boston Common.  Attended concert in the evening in City Hall.  Left for Newburyport the next morning. He received pay from U.S. $219.98.

Two days later he starts for Springfield, visiting Uncle WIlliam Stearns and Uncle Luther Stearns (Charles Oliver Stearns’ younger brothers)  He remarks a few days later he was 100 miles from Boston on the western Rail Road in West Springfield.

He heads for Worcester to Mechanics Hall and the Republic Convention, then on to Nashua, NH, staying with the Leonard Burbank family (Married to his cousin Fannie Stearns)

September 17 went to Lowell to the W.H. Hull family (his Aunt Mary Elizabeth Stearns Hull) in Dracut where his grandmother Dorcas Varnum Stearns lives, and heads home.

List of soldiers in 3rd Unattached Company, Massachusetts Infantry (Militia)  Mustered in for 90 days’ service May 3, 1864, and on duty at Fort Pickering, Salem, Mass.  Mustered out August 5, 1864. (soldiers mentioned in JOS Journal noted by date of occurrence)

  • Adams, Hazen M.
  • Adams Jr., David J.
  • Armitage, Charles E.
  • Atkinson, Albert J.
  • Ayers, Charles L.
  • Bridges, Rufus
  • Brown, John A.
  • Burrill, James P.
  • Burrill, Henry M.
  • Carlton, William C.
  • Cheeney Jr., Charles
  • Cheever, Augustus E.
  • Cheney Jr., Charles
  • Clark, George W.
  • Collins, John H.  Salisbury;  6/4  6/29  7/1 7/27 7/30
  • Creasey, Edward K.
  • Creasy, Edmund K.
  • Currier, Albert E.
  • Currier, Frank P.   5/30 – he’s “friend Currier” that Nell mentions.  6/2  6/6  6/17 7/2  8/5  8/8
  • Currier, Alfred
  • Cutter, Henry P.
  • Dame, Luther  7/19.  Captain.  8/3
  • Danforth, Jacob I.  6/11.  Corporal.
  • Danforth, Calvin H.
  • Delano, James H.
  • Frothingham Jr., Joseph A.
  • Gerrish, Orrin B.  8/6
  • Goodwin, Daniel S.
  • Green, Charles M.
  • Greenleaf, Rufus L.  6/28   7/13 7/27
  • Greenough, Henry F.
  • Hale, Charles H.
  • Haskell, George W.
  • Haskell, William W.
  • Hodgdon, James W.
  • Holland, John E.
  • Horton, Charles F.
  • Johnson, Otis
  • Johnson, James H.
  • Keniston, James R.
  • Keniston, James R.
  • Knight, Joseph
  • Knight Jr., George W.
  • Lamson, William S.
  • Lane, Isaac J.
  • Lattime, Benjamin H.
  • Little, William A.
  • Lunt, Amos
  • Merrill, Paul A.
  • Morse, Joseph E.
  • Morse, Joseph F.
  • Morse, Albert
  • Morse, Edward O.
  • Mudge, William M.
  • Mumford, Frank E.
  • Mumford, Martin M.
  • Newhall, Preston
  • Noyes, Charles S.
  • Ordway, George
  • Pearson, George
  • Pettingill, John S.  6/2  6/29  7/1  7/23
  • Pillsbury, Harvey H.
  • Pilsbury, Harvey H.
  • Poor, Hiram R.
  • Porter, Albert W.
  • Pray, Joseph E.  5/9
  • Ross, Jr., George
  • Russell, Edward P.   5/9 5/10
  • Ryan, John
  • Sawyer, Albert P.   5/10 6/23
  • Stearns, Joseph O.  Salisbury
  • Stevens, George H.
  • Stickney, Benjamin
  • Stickney, Enoch P.
  • Swasey, William H.
  • Talbot, Tristum
  • Thurlow, Charles W.
  • Thurlow, Benjamin A.
  • Tibbetts, Calvin E.  Salisbury   6/3
  • Tibbetts, James E.  Salisbury
  • Tilton, W. Byron:  6/24 Corporal  6/27 7/25
  • Toppan, Roland W.  6/24 Sergeant 7/31
  • Towle, Edward B.
  • Varina, Edmund C.
  • Varina, William T.
  • Varina Jr., William T.
  • Vay, Charles P.
  • Walton, Joseph H.  Salisbury  Corporal.  7/31.
  • Wells, Wallace D.
  • Woodman, Charles H.
  • Young, Jacob H.

Photo of Joseph Oliver Stearns in uniform. His father Charles Stearns served as a selectman in Amesbury, Massachusetts and his obituary “Death of a nonagenarian” clearly shows a minion deeply respected, admired, and cherished. He was expert tanner, but held many vocations including California Gold Rush venturer. News clips furnished from the Archival room at Amesbury Library reveal a full life. He was present during the visit of Gen Lafayette and the laying of the Bunker Hill monument where Daniel Webster spoke. His 90th birthday was attended by his closest mates Captain Paul Bickford, Richard Currier, Hiram Foote, and L E Burbank.








  • Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family James Edward Greenleaf
  • Salem Register, Salem Massachusetts September 10, 1863
  • “United States; Salem; Fort Pickering; Fort William.” Saturday, November 23, 1799  Greenfield Gazette Greenfield, Massachusetts
  • The City of Newburyport in the Civil War from 1861 to 1865: With the Individual Records of the Soldiers and Sailors who Served to Its Credit, Also the War Records of Many Natives and Residents of the City, Credited to Other Places George William Creasey

Timothy Osgood helping Amesbury Massachusetts to Preserve Powder House


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Timothy Osgood and the community of Amesbury, Massachusetts are working hard to preserve an historical structure in the town.  The Powder House, built in 1810 to supply ammunition for our brave boys during the War of 1812 was vandalized back in 2014. (Photograph of damage taken by Osgood above) Osgood, along with community members have organized cleanups and repair of the site. Face book page Amesbury Powder House

Despite the dedication set forth by the Amesbury Improvement Association after the 2010 damage by vandals, keeping up has proved to be a tough task.  Over the past few years residents have volunteered their time and donated materials to temporarily secure the Powder House from further damage.

After the 2010 vandalism local mason, Matt Gillard, owner of Colonial Brick Works, and assistant Rck Devine repaired much of the damage. Gillard told Wicked Local reporter, David Rogers that the culprits definitely invested some time in the crime.

The original bricks underneath the stucco were damaged and to help protect original brick exterior Gillard covered it with layers of stucco giving it it’s now distinctive white color.


What really is important to note is that this historic property is only 1 example of 7 left remaining in the entire state. An article published in 1919 says it best: Powder Houses are works of Art and “Patriotic Objects of Valuable Lessons!”

Recent Photos of Timothy and Amerbury citizens working at the site back in May 2016

According to Mathew Thomas in Historic Powder Houses of New England Arsenals of American Independence, “Massachusetts, which included the district of Maine until 1820, was the first of the New England states to enact a law requiring each town to erect a powder house.”

When Thomas visited the Amesbury Powder House in 2010 he was troubled by the violent destruction on the historical site, but was appeased when he spotted a busload of young school children ready to make a pilgrimage up the hill. He noted it would be a double lesson as the children would learn the powder house part in New England history; and hopefully a lesson not to vandalize a significant landmark.

Powder House Storage locations in Amesbury/Salisbury* Area.

PowderMassachusetts_ Historical Data Relating to Cities and Towns

Thomas cites Town Records and local history accounts. Revolutionary War Deacon Orlando Sargent‘s corn house was used, then one was erected William Currier and Capt Ebenezer Weed on Weed’s Hill, or Pond’s Hill 1802:

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Timothy Osgood was sent this old transcript on the property which we are working on transcribing– Amesbury, Massachusetts Powder House. Any information or help with this would be greatly appreciated.

The document: Captain Benjamin Evans

It has been judged by the town of Salisbury that a safe and convenient building be erected and built for the purpose of depositing therein the powder and other military stores belonging to said town and such place or spot of ground of said town–selectmen or be judged most eligible ___will appear by vote of said Town reference being…(It reads the decision agreed  the place eligible and proper and November would be built) 

Popwder House deed 1

Powder House deed2.jpg



Powder House photo PamPhoto of Mary Casey at Powder House Hill Amesbury, Massachusetts Heirlooms Reunited



powder house 1810powder house article 1919

Records:     POWDER HOUSE REPAIR BROWN’S HILL Powder House 1826 Amesbury Records


So where did we get the Powder? According to Engineering and Mining Journal, Volume 18: In 1626, the East India Company put up mills, and, by monopolizing the trade in saltpeter, controlled the manufacture of powder in England, and, to a great extent, that of the world, for, down to the time of the independence of the United States, England largely supplied the markets of the world.

Edward Rawson was Granted 500 acres of land at Pecoit: “He Goes On with the powder if the saltpeter comes.”  In June 1642 the same Court to promote public safety by raising and producing such materials amongst us as will perfect the making of gunpowder the instrumental means that all nations lay hold on for their preservation 49.0 do order that every plantation in this colony shall erect a house 20 or 30 feet long and 20 feet wide to make salpeter.”

In May 1666 Richard Wooddey and Henry Russell of Boston were granted certain privileges as an encouragement to engage in the manufacture of gun powder. There was a mill on the Neponset, (the Milton/Dorchester) canons (first ever made in our country) and ammunition were made for the King Phillips War.

In 1775 Andover, Massachusetts had a powder mill. Jennifer Tarbox of the Andover Historical Society published a story in the Andover Townmen “Andover stories Powder Mill supplied Minutemen.” (2010)

A powder mill was established to provide gunpowder for the Continental Army. The private enterprise was bankrolled by Samuel Phillips (Phllips Andover Academy). The builder of the mill was Samuel Cunnable and Eliphalet Pearson would make the powder. An explosion in June 1778 forced the shut down. Phillips turned it into a paper  mill.

Another supplier was Stoughton, Massachusetts and Paul Revere was the head honcho. According to George Comeau in his article “True Tales from Canton’s Past: Copper Mill,” in November 1775 the Continental Congress sent Revere to Philadelphia to learn how to manufacture gunpowder.Here is a portion of the article:

An established mill in that part of Stoughton that is now Canton on a site owned by Samuel Briggs. On February 20, 1776, the land that now borders the vicinity of Plymouth and Neponset streets was purchased by the Colony of Massachusetts Bay for £100 and included three quarters of an acre of land, part upland and part mill pond. A committee was ordered to “commence the building of the mill at Stoughton, and to exert themselves to hurry on this important and necessary business without delay.”

Revere returned and supervised the construction of the mill project which would be run by Major Thomas Crane and  Daniel Vose. 40,000 pounds of powder. A writer of the time reported that the powder “was of excellent quality.” By this time, Paul Revere was the commanding officer of “the Castle” in Boston and took large quantities of powder for the defense of Boston Harbor.

After the war, in 1779, the mill was sold to Samuel Osgood with the express condition that during the succeeding four years he be obliged to manufacture for the state all the gunpowder needed, provided the request did not exceed the capacity of the mill. The state provided the materials, and the new owner was compensated a portion for the manufacturing process. But the promise to the state was not to be realized, because on October 30, 1779, the powder mill at Canton was “blown to atoms.” The explosion was as expected — horrific. Benjamin Pettingill, then 31 years old, was “very much burnt” and died 35 hours later. The mill was not rebuilt and the millstones that had been used to grind the powder were bought by General Richard Gridley and relocated to a small mill on Washington Street near Shepard’s Pond. Revere made a great trade at casting bells and cannon balls with Henry Knox. 



Other Powder Makers Listed in Massachusetts

  • Charles Gould of South Danvers, Massachusetts
  • Walter Evendon of Dorchester, Massachusetts
  • Samuel Potter of Acton, Massachusetts American Powder Company Works
  • Edward Tilton of Sudbury, Massachusetts

Sources to Consult


  • “Historic Powder House damaged by vandals.” Jim Cunningham Daily News Newburyport, Massachusetts News October 15, 2014
  • “Amesbury man looks to preserve powder house.” May 25, 2015 Daily News Newburyport, Massachusetts
  • “Historic Amesbury powder house hit by vandals” Liz King May 8 2010 Daily News Newburyport, Massachusetts
  • Chronological Record of the Principal Events that Have Occurred in Amesbury, Massachusetts: From the Organization of the Township of Merrimac in 1638 to 1900  Emily Binney Smith J.E. Brierly, printer, 1901 Amesbury, Massachusetts
  • Advisory List to the National Register of Historic Places, 1969 United States Department of the  Interior National Park Service United States. Department of the Interior. National Park Service U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970
  • Records Relating to the Early History of Boston, Volume 32 Boston, Massachusetts Registry Department Rockwell and Churchill, city printers, 1903

  • “They Stand Grim Sentinels of the Past: New England’s Old Powder House are Patriotic Lessons of the Past.” Boston Herald Sunday News November 12, 1919

  • History of Amesbury: Including the First Seventeen Years of Salisbury, to the Separation in 1654; and Merrimac, from Its Incorporation in 1876 Joseph Merrill Press of F. P. Stiles, 1880

  • The Thirty-ninth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 1862-1865  Alfred Seelye Roe

  • Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony  George Francis Dow

  • “Occupations of the Members of the Civil Government of Massachusetts, for 1835.” February 1835 Daily Atlas Boston

  • Andover stories Powder Mill supplied Minutemen.” Jennifer Tarbox, Andover Historical Society 2010
  • “True Tales from Canton’s Past: Copper Mill.” George Comeau March 5 2015 Canton Citizen
  • Country Journal Watertown, Massachusetts Advertisement May 13, 1776
  • In My Footsteps: Amesbury, Massachusetts
  • Powder House Amesbury Restoration & Preservation Effort



 Thomas Gage, Paul Revere, and the Powder Alarms

A check anywhere wou’d be fatal, and the first stroke will decide a great deal.”

—Thomas Gage, Sept. 2, 1774 1

EARLY IN THE MORNING of September 1, 1774, General Gage set his plan in motion. His first step was to seize the largest stock of gunpowder in New England. It was stored in a magazine called the Provincial Powder House, high on a remote hill, six miles northwest of Boston. Many towns kept their munitions there, as did the Province of Massachusetts itself.

During the summer of 1774, the towns had quietly withdrawn their supplies from the Powder House, leaving only the provincial reserve. Loyalists called this supply the King’s powder. Most people in Massachusetts believed that it belonged to them.

General Gage was told of the withdrawals by William Brattle, a much-hated Cambridge Tory. The British commander resolved to remove the remaining gunpowder before it disappeared into the countryside. As governor of Massachusetts he had the authority to take that step. He kept carefully within the letter of the law. 2

The mission was planned in high secrecy. To lead it, Gage selected one of his most able officers, Lieutenant-Colonel George Maddison, commander of the 4th (King’s Own) Foot. Maddison was given 260 picked men, “draughted from the several regiments” in the garrison. For quick surprise and ease of transport, Gage availed himself of the Royal Navy’s command of coastal waters, and decided to strike suddenly from the sea, using longboats borrowed from ships in Boston harbor.

At 4:30 in the morning of September 1, 1774, while the unsuspecting town was still asleep, Colonel Maddison’s men crept out of their quarters and marched quietly to Long Wharf, where the navy was waiting with a flotilla of thirteen longboats, bobbing gently on the morning tide. The soldiers climbed awkwardly into the boats, and within minutes the coxswains pushed off, rowing across Boston harbor to the Mystic River. 3

The soldiers came ashore at a landing place called Temple’s Farm, and marched quickly to the Powder House on Quarry Hill about a mile away. The sheriff of Middlesex County, Colonel David Phips, gave them the keys to the building, a windowless stone tower with one of Benjamin Franklin’s new lightning rods rising from the center of its shingled roof. No lanterns could be lighted in the building for fear of explosion, and the morning was still very dark. The soldiers waited for the light to improve, then brought out the gunpowder. All 250 half-barrels were carried to the boats and delivered to Boston. As the sun rose over Quarry Hill, a small detachment marched on to Cambridge, and brought away two brass field pieces that belonged to the Province. By noon the munitions were deposited in Castle William, and the men were back in their barracks. 4


The Massachusetts Provincial Powder House still stands today at Powder-house Square, Somerville, Massachusetts. The removal of munitions by the 64th Foot on Sept. 1, 1774, triggered the great New England Powder Alarm. (James Hunnewell, History of Charlestown (Boston, 1888))

General Gage was very pleased. His staff had planned the mission perfectly, and Colonel Maddison had executed it without a hitch. The largest supply of gunpowder in Massachusetts had been secured at a stroke, without a shot fired. It was a model operation in all respects, save one. The British commander had completely misunderstood the temper of New England.

The people were caught entirely by surprise. Through the day, reports began to fly across the countryside. It was rumored that the Province had been “robbed of its powder,” that the Regulars were marching, that war had begun, that six people were killed, that the King’s ships were bombarding Boston. None of this was true, but many people gave way to a wild panic that would long be remembered in New England as the Powder Alarm. 5

All that day church bells tolled in the towns. At dusk great fire-beacons that had warned of war against the French were set alight, burning brightly across the open countryside. As far away as Connecticut, the militia began to march toward Boston. That night, a young traveler named McNeil happened to be on the road from the Connecticut Valley to Boston. He stopped at a tavern in Shrewsbury, about halfway in between. About midnight he was awakened by loud voices and a violent knocking at the door. He heard someone tell the landlord that “the powder was taken.” Within fifteen minutes, fifty men had gathered at the tavern, “equipping themselves and sending off posts to the neighboring towns.” He remembered that “the men set off as fast as they were equipped.”

Early the next morning, September 2, 1774, McNeil set out for Boston. Afterward he wrote that “he never saw such a scene before. All along [the road] were armed men rushing forward— some on foot, some on horseback. At every house women and children [were] making cartridges, running bullets, making wallets [pouches of food], baking biscuits, crying and bemoaning and at the same time animating their husbands and sons to fight for their liberties, though not knowing whether they should ever see them again. … They left scarcely half a dozen men in a town, unless old and decrepit, and in one town the landlord told him that himself was the only man left.” 6

Ezra Stiles, a Congregationalist clergyman with a passion for statistics, estimated that “perhaps more than one third the effective men in all New England took arms and were on actual march for Boston.” Another observer reported that 20,000 men marched from the Connecticut Valley alone, “in one body armed and equipped,” and were halfway to Boston before they were called back. 7

William Brattle’s letter to General Gage somehow fell into Whig hands and was given to the newspapers. When the people of New England discovered what had happened, anxiety and fear gave way to unbridled fury. The rage of an entire region fell on a few Tories who happened to be within reach. Whig leaders who had been trying to awaken a spirit of resistance suddenly found themselves trying, in Joseph Warren’s words, “to prevent the people from coming to immediate acts of violence.” 8

On the morning of September 2, a huge crowd of 4,000 angry men gathered on Cambridge Common, mostly farmers from the towns between Sudbury and Boston. Whig leaders persuaded them to leave their firearms in Watertown. Armed only with wooden cudgels, they marched to “Tory Row” in Cambridge, and gathered around William Brattle’s mansion. This elegant house had been his family’s seat through four generations. Its gardens and private mall extended all the way to the Charles River. The property itself was protected by Whig leaders, but Brattle was forced to flee for his life, and took refuge at Castle William in Boston harbor. He sent a pathetic letter to the newspapers: “My banishment from my house, the place of my nativity,” he wrote, “my house being searched though I am informed it was without damage, grieves me deeply … I am extremely sorry for what has taken place; I hope I may be forgiven.” But he was not forgiven. William Brattle was never allowed to go home again. He was a fugitive for the rest of his days.

The mob went on to visit Colonel David Phips, the Tory sheriff who had delivered the keys of the powderhouse, and compelled him to swear in writing that he would never enforce the Coercive Acts and would recall every writ issued “under the new establishment.” Another inhabitant of Tory Row, Thomas Oliver, was made to resign his seat on Gage’s new Royal Council. He wrote on a slip of paper, “My house at Cambridge being surrounded by about four thousand people, in compliance with their command I sign my name.” 9

It was a fiercely hot day, and tempers rose with the thermometer. The crowd moved to the house of Tory barrister Jonathan Sewall, and things got out of hand. Someone inside the Sewall mansion fired a pistol. An unruly mob of boys and servants smashed the windows and threatened to pull down the entire building. While Whig leaders held the crowd at bay, Jonathan Sewall fled to Boston. A few months later he left the country, never to return. Printed papers were nailed to the doors of Sewall’s fellow lawyers, threatening death to any member of the Bar who appeared in the new courts created by the Coercive Acts. 10

Some of the mob, who were mounted, came upon Customs Commissioner Benjamin Hallowell in his opulent “post-chaise,” escorted by a servant in livery. A countryman came up to him and cried, “Damn you, how do you like us now, you Tory son of a bitch?” Hallowell took his servant’s horse and galloped toward Boston with a pistol in his hand, pursued by a howling mob of infuriated Yankees, said to number 160 mounted men and horses. Behind the thundering mob galloped three frantic Whig leaders, hoping to prevent bloodshed. As Hallowell approached the British sentries at Boston Neck, his horse collapsed. With the mob in full cry close behind him he sprinted to the safety of the British lines.

When the danger of violence passed, Boston Whigs rejoiced in the dramatic turn of events and spread the news to other colonies. Paul Revere, unable to travel himself, dispatched riders bearing his personal letters to leaders in other colonies. To his good friend John Lamb, a leading Whig in New York, Revere wrote triumphantly,

Dear Sir,

I embrace this oppertunity to inform you, that we are in Spirits, tho’ in a garrison; the Spirit of Liberty never was higher than at present, the troops have the horrors amazingly. By reason of some late movements of our friends in the Country, our new fangled Councellors are resigning their places every day; our Justices of the courts, who now hold their commissions during the pleasure of his Majesty, or the Governor, cannot git a jury to act with them, in short the Tories are giving way everywhere in our Province. 11

It is interesting to observe that Paul Revere’s thinking centered on “the Spirit of Liberty,” at a time when Thomas Gage thought mainly about material aspects of the problem. While Imperial leaders were laboring to remove the physical means of resistance, New England Whigs were promoting the spiritual will to resist. The two parties to this great conflict were not merely thinking different things; they were thinking differently.

General Gage was amazed by the rising of the countryside against him, and astounded by the anger he had awakened in New England. Instantly his mood changed, and suddenly he turned very cautious. His staff had already been planning another mission to seize munitions in Worcester, forty miles inland. This second strike was postponed, and later abandoned altogether.

The British commander began to think defensively. He ordered the town of Boston to be closed and fortified. Heavy cannon were emplaced on Roxbury Neck, in fear that the “country people” might storm the town. The inhabitants were ordered to surrender their weapons, lest they rise against the garrison. Stocks of powder and arms in the possession of merchants were forcibly purchased by the Crown. 12



After the powder alarm, this hastily printed handbill was tacked on the doors of Massachusetts lawyers, of whom many were Tories. (Public Record Office)

As commander in chief for America, Gage did what he could to concentrate his forces in Boston. But by late October he had only 3000 Regulars in the town, not nearly enough to control a province that had mustered ten times as many men against him in a single day. The first hints of winter were beginning to be felt in the crisp New England air, and the season for campaigning was nearly at an end. 13

General Gage began to send home dispatches that differed very much from his strong advice of the past five years. In the weeks after the Powder Alarm, he informed London that “the whole country was in arms and in motion.” He reported that “from present appearances there is no prospect of putting the late acts in force, but by first making a conquest of the New-England provinces.” 14

In November Gage went further, and urged that the Coercive Acts (which he himself had proposed) should be suspended until more troops could be sent to Boston. This idea caused consternation in London. The King himself angrily rejected Gage’s advice as “the most absurd that can be suggested.” 15

At the same time, Gage begged his superiors for massive reinforcement. To Barrington he wrote, “If you think ten thousand men sufficient, send twenty; if one million is thought enough, give two; you save both blood and treasure in the end.” 16

In London those numbers were thought to be absurd, even hysterical. At the moment when Gage was asking for 20,000 reinforcements, only 12,000 regular infantry existed in all of Britain. 17 The King’s ministers replied that “such a force cannot be collected without augmenting our army to a war establishment.” Gage was sent a battalion of 400 Marines, and told to get on with the job. 18

Meanwhile, the Whig leaders of New England were gathering their own resources with greater success. A convention met in Worcester on September 21, 1774, and urged town meetings to organize special companies of minutemen, so that one-third of the militia would be in constant readiness to march. It recommended that a system of alarms and express riders be organized throughout the colony. In October, the former legislature of Massachusetts met in defiance of Governor Gage, and declared itself to be the First Provincial Congress. It created a Committee of Safety and a Committee of Supplies, modeled after the institutions of England’s Puritan Revolution and armed with executive powers.

The people of New England vowed never again to be taken by surprise. In Boston, Paul Revere went instantly to work on that particular problem. His chosen instrument was a favorite device in Boston: the voluntary association. Many years later he recalled that “in the Fall of 1774 and Winter of 1775 I was one of upwards of thirty, chiefly mechanics, who formed ourselves into a committee for the purpose of watching the movements of the British soldiers, and gaining every intelligence of the movements of the Tories. We held our meetings at the Green Dragon Tavern.” 19

Paul Revere himself was the leader of this clandestine organization. Its activities were shrouded in the deepest secrecy. He wrote, “We were so careful that our meetings should be kept secret, that every time we met, every person swore upon the Bible that he would not discover any of our transactions but to Messrs Hancock, Adams, Doctors Warren, Church and one or two more.” 20

Despite these precautions, General Gage quickly learned about this secret society. His source was Dr. Benjamin Church, who sat in the highest councils of the Whig movement, and betrayed it for money. The Whigs of Boston were soon painfully aware that Gage knew what they were doing. Many years later, Paul Revere remembered that “a gentleman who had connections with the Tory party, but was a Whig at heart, acquainted me that our meetings were discovered, and mentioned the identical words that were spoken among us the night before.” Paul Revere’s mechanics were unable to discover who was betraying them, and began to suspect one another. All the while they continued to report their activities to Dr. Benjamin Church, never imagining that Church himself was the traitor. 21

Even as General Gage knew what Paul Revere and his friends were doing, he made no attempt to stop them. Perhaps he saw no reason to try, as long as Doctor Church was keeping him so well informed. Without interference, the Boston mechanics met at the Green Dragon Tavern, and organized themselves into regular watches. “We frequently took turns, two by two,” Revere remembered, “to watch the soldiers by patrolling the streets all night.” 22

In our mind’s eye, we might see them in the pale glow of Boston’s new street lights, patrolling the icy streets on long winter nights, their hands tucked under arms for warmth, and the collars of their short mechanics’ jackets turned high against the bitter Boston wind. All the while General Gage’s officers watched the watchmen through frosted window panes, then gathered around white oak fires in cozy winter quarters, and laughed knowingly into their steaming mugs of mulled Madeira.

Early in December, 1774, the British command recovered its nerve, and decided to strike again. An Order in Council prohibited the export of arms and ammunition to America, and ordered Imperial officials to stop “the importation thereof into any part of North America,” and to secure the munitions that were already in the colonies. Particularly at risk was a large supply of gunpowder, cannon, and small arms in New Hampshire. It was kept at Fort William and Mary, near the entrance to Portsmouth harbor, fifty miles north of Boston. The ramshackle fortress was garrisoned only by six invalid British soldiers, and vulnerable to attack.

This time the Whigs of New England were on their guard. Paul Revere’s clandestine network functioned with high efficiency, and caught wind of the new British policy. Once again, Revere himself played a pivotal role. With various reports in hand, he and his friends decided to warn the people of New Hampshire that a large British expedition was ordered to Fort William and Mary, and possibly underway. 23

The date was December 12, 1774. British warships were indeed at sea along the coast of New England in severe winter weather, and were thought to be heading for New Hampshire. Among them was HMS Somerset, a ship of the line with a large force of British Marines on board. In the latitude of Portsmouth, she met a fierce snowstorm that churned the coastal waters of New England into a seamen’s hell. A gale howled through her rigging, and foaming torrents of green water cascaded from her plunging bows. She was forced to heave to, her sails “close-reefed and banded,” with hand pumps “constantly going throughout the ship,” to keep her from sinking. 24



The Green Dragon Tavern was a massive brick building on the west side of Union Street. Modeled on another Green Dragon Tavern in Bishopsgate, London, it was operating in Boston as early as 1712, and became a center of revolutionary activity. The building was bought by Revere’s Masonic Lodge, hence the square and compass in the corner. The vehicle is a one-horse chaise such as Paul Revere himself used on at least one of his revolutionary rides. This ink and watercolor drawing by John Johnson in 1773 is in the American Antiquarian Society.

Admiral Graves wrote later, “This sort of storm is so severe it cannot be looked against, and by the snow freezing as fast as it falls, baffles all resistance—for the blocks become choked, the tackle encrusted, the ropes and sails quite congealed, and the whole ship freezes upon whatever part it falls and soon covers the forepart of a ship with ice.” One may imagine the misery of her crew as they worked the frozen sails against the gale that was blowing in their faces. They had to “pour boiling water upon the tacks and sheets and with clubs and bats beat off the ice, before the cordage can be rendered flexible.” 25

Meanwhile, early in the morning of December 13, Paul Revere saddled his horse and hurried north to warn the people of Portsmouth. It proved to be one of his most difficult rides. Winter had come early to New Hampshire in 1774. The snow was deep on the ground by Thanksgiving Day, November 24. Another snow fell on December 9, and turned the highways into morasses of mud and slush. Then, in a typical New England sequence, the weather turned bitter cold. The thick slush froze in rough furrows on the rutted roads. 26

It was the sort of day when weatherwise Yankee travelers bided their time by tavern hearths. But Paul Revere could not wait for the weather. Determined to win his race against the Regulars, he mounted his horse and rode sixty miles from Boston to Portsmouth, under dark December skies. A piercing west wind howled across the dangerous highway, and chilled him to the bone.

Revere reached Portsmouth on the afternoon of December 13, 1774, and went straight to the waterfront house of Whig merchant Samuel Cutts. Portsmouth’s Committee of Correspondence quickly convened, and Revere reported his news. He told the Portsmouth Whigs that two regiments of Regulars were coming to seize the powder at Fort William and Mary. Further, he warned them that the King had issued an Order in Council prohibiting export of munitions to the colonies, and that new supplies would not be easy to obtain. 27

While the Whigs of Portsmouth were pondering this news, a Tory townsman reported Paul Revere’s arrival to New Hampshire’s Royal Governor John Wentworth, a man of energy and decision. Wentworth instantly alerted the small garrison at the fort, and dispatched an express rider to General Gage and Admiral Graves with an urgent request for help. 28

In fact, Paul Revere’s intelligence was not entirely correct. No British expedition had yet sailed for Portsmouth. HMS Somerset was merely in passage from Britain to America, and her Marines were part of the battalion promised to General Gage. But when Wentworth’s message arrived in Boston, Admiral Graves ordered a small sloop, HMS Canceaux, to depart immediately for Portsmouth with another detachment of Marines on board. A larger frigate, HMS Scarborough, was ordered to follow as soon as she could get under way.

Meanwhile, the New Hampshire men were acting quickly on the information that Paul Revere had brought them. Early on the morning of December 14, a fife and drum paraded through the streets of Portsmouth. By noon, 400 militiamen mustered in the town. They collected a fleet of small boats, and prepared to assault the fort. At about 3 o’clock in the afternoon the attack began, under cover of a snow storm. Some of the New Hampshire men marched overland to the fort. Others approached it by sea, paddling down the Piscataqua River in the eery silence of the falling snow, as clouds of white flakes swirled around them. 29

The garrison of British invalids saw them coming through the snow, and prepared to resist. The attackers demanded the surrender of the fort. Captain Cochran told them “on their peril not to enter. They replied they would.” The British garrison, outnumbered 400 to 6, bravely hoisted the King’s colors, manned the ramparts and managed to fire three four-pounders before the New Hampshire men swarmed over the walls from every side. Even then, the gallant British garrison continued fighting with small arms until they were overpowered by weight of numbers. The fort commander, Captain Cochran, surrendered his sword but was allowed to keep it. The New Hampshire men gave three cheers, and then to the horror of the garrison hauled down the King’s colors. Captain Cochran drew his sword that had just been returned to him, and was wounded and “pinioned” by the New Hampshiremen. Another of the British Regulars bravely tried to stop them. A Yankee snapped a pistol in the soldier’s face, then knocked him down with the butt end of it. These were truly the first blows of the American Revolution, four months before the battles of Lexington and Concord. 30

The New Hampshiremen took possession of the fort and broke open the magazine. They carried away more than 100 barrels of gunpowder by boat to the town of Durham, and then by cart to hiding places in the interior. 31

While the fight was going on, couriers were spreading Paul Revere’s message through the country towns of New Hampshire. By morning, more than a thousand men marched on Portsmouth. It was reported that “the men who came down are those of the best property and note in the province.” They returned to the fort and took away a supply of muskets and sixteen cannon, leaving about twenty heavy pieces behind. 32

The British reinforcements were too late. HMS Canceaux did not sail from Boston until December 17. She had a favoring wind, and managed to reach Portsmouth without incident. But when she arrived, a cunning Yankee pilot conned her into shallow water at high tide, and the British warship found herself helplessly “be-nipped” behind a shoal, unable to move for days. Admiral Graves, a rough unpolished sea officer with a furious temper, was reduced to a state of apoplectic rage.

HMS Scarborough was unable to get under way until December 19. As she left harbor the fickle Boston wind veered from the west to the northeast, and the weather turned so threatening that she was forced to anchor in Nantasket Road south of Boston until the wind changed. The storm-beaten frigate did not arrive in Portsmouth until a week after the attack on the fort. The New Hampshiremen had long since released their prisoners and melted away into the countryside. Paul Revere trotted back to Boston, his mission completed. The British commander of the expedition came ashore to find an infuriated Royal governor, a defeated garrison, a looted fort, and a hostile population. 33

For General Gage, the Portsmouth Alarm was a heavy defeat. The people of New Hampshire had been needlessly provoked to commit an overt act of armed rebellion. They had attacked the King’s troops, seized a large supply of powder, and carried it beyond the reach of British arms. Other towns throughout New England had acted in the same way. In Newport, Providence, and New London, cannon and munitions had been removed from forts and hidden in the interior. 34

The British leaders had no doubt as to the identity of the man who had brought about their humiliation. They attributed their defeat directly to Paul Revere. In New Hampshire, Governor Wentworth wrote that the trouble began with “Mr. Revere and the dispatch he brought with him, before which all was perfectly quiet and peaceable in the place.” 35

Paul Revere’s role was well known to British leaders in Boston. Within a few days of the event, Lord Percy wrote home, “Tuesday last Mr. Paul Revere (a person who is employed by the Committee of Correspondence, here, as a messenger) arrived at Portsmouth with a letter from the committee here to those of that place, on receipt of which, circular letters were wrote to all the neighboring towns; and an armed body of 400 or 500 men marched the next day into the town of Portsmouth.” 36

Many British officers wondered why General Gage did not arrest a man who so openly defied him. Some would cheerfully have clapped him in irons, and left him to rot in a damp dungeon at Castle William in Boston harbor. But Thomas Gage believed strictly in the rule of law. The Whig leaders, Revere among them, were allowed to remain at liberty while frustrated British soldiers cursed their commander and their Yankee tormentors in equal measure. Even Gage’s lieutenant Lord Percy, outwardly loyal to his chief, wrote privately, “The general’s great lenity and moderation serve only to make them more daring and insolent.” 37

In February, Gage’s staff began to plan another stroke. A large supply of munitions was thought to be accumulating in the seaport town of Salem, the “shire town” for Essex County in the northeast corner of Massachusetts. Reports reached the British commander that many old ships’ cannon were being converted into field pieces at a Salem forge, and that eight new brass guns had been imported from abroad. General Gage decided to go after them. 38

Command of the mission was given to Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Leslie, an able and experienced officer, known for his moderation and restraint. Loyalist Ann Hulton described Leslie as “amiable and good … of a noble Scotch family but distinguished more by his humanity and affability.” Here was a man that Gage could trust.

Again the British commander in chief moved with his habitual caution and secrecy. Thomas Hutchinson Junior wrote of this expedition, “The general is so very secret in all his motions that his aide de camp knew nothing of this till it was put in execution.”39Elaborate precautions were taken to prevent detection by Paul Revere and his mechanics. For security, the mission was assigned to the 64th Foot, quartered on Castle Island in the harbor. These men were ordered to travel by sea directly from the island in the dark of night, so that nobody would see them depart. 40

Once again, Paul Revere got wind of the impending expedition before it sailed. The information came to him in a roundabout way, perhaps from the Colony’s secretary, Thomas Flucker, who worked in Province House with General Gage. Flucker may have passed on the news to his Whig son-in-law, bookseller Henry Knox, who relayed it to Paul Revere. 41

Revere appears to have been informed only that something was stirring in the harbor. His mechanics’ network went instantly into operation. The day before the expedition was to depart, three men rowed out to Castle Island to find out “what was acting,” to use Revere’s favorite phrase. As they approached the island, the British soldiers were waiting, and the Boston men were arrested for trespass. One wonders if the report from Gage’s headquarters may have been leaked to Revere deliberately, as bait for a trap. In any case, the mechanics were caught, and held on the island from Saturday afternoon until Monday morning, “lest we should send an express to our brethren at Marblehead and Salem.” 42

Had General Gage been less Whiggish in his respect for the rule of law, Paul Revere might have worn these handcuffs and leg irons, which were later recovered from the wreck of HMS Somerset on Cape Cod and are at the Pilgrim Monument and Provincetown Museum.

While Paul Revere’s mechanics were kept prisoner, the British troops of the 64th Foot got off without detection, 240 strong. A little after midnight, February 26, 1775, their transport sailed north across Massachusetts Bay on a course for Marblehead. They reached their destination about nine o’clock in the morning of February 27, and dropped anchor by a secluded beach in Homan’s Cove on Marblehead Neck. Colonel Leslie kept his soldiers hidden in the hold. Only a few crewmen were visible on deck. 43

It was a quiet Sunday in Marblehead, and the countryside was silent and peaceful. The Regulars waited patiently until the people of Marblehead went to their meetinghouses for their afternoon sermon. Then, between two and three o’clock in the afternoon, Leslie ordered his men into action. His Regulars swarmed out of the ship’s hold, landed ashore, and quickly formed on a road near the beach. 44

Colonel Leslie gave the order to advance, and the long red column went swinging into its march toward Salem, five miles away. The Regulars were confident that nothing could stand in their way, and decided to announce their presence. The fifes and drums of the 64th Foot suddenly shattered the stillness of the Sabbath with a raucous rendition of Yankee Doodle.

The landing of the soldiers had already been observed by several men of Marblehead, who sprinted to their meetinghouse and sounded the alarm. Whig leader Major John Pedrick decided to warn Salem, but he could get there only by the road the Regulars had taken. Major Pedrick mounted his horse, and rode slowly past the Regulars, politely saluting Colonel Leslie, whom he had met before. Leslie returned the salute, and ordered his regiment to “file to the right and left and give Major Pedrick the pass.”

When out of sight Pedrick put spurs to his horse, and galloped on to Salem. He went to the home of Colonel David Mason, who ran into the meetinghouse, where the congregation had gathered for the afternoon service, and shouted as he came down the aisle, “The Regulars are coming after the guns and are now near Mal-loon’s Mills!”

Bells began to ring and drums beat “to arms” throughout the town. The people poured out of their churches and ran to save the guns. Baptists and Congregationalists forgot their differences and joined in a common effort. Even Quaker David Boyce hitched up his team and helped to haul away the heavy cannon. Some weapons were taken to an oak woodlot and hidden under the leaves. Others were carried to a remote part of town called Orne’s Point. 45

Meanwhile, the British troops were on the march. To delay them a party of townsmen hurried to a bridge between Salem and Marblehead and frantically ripped up some of the planking to delay the Regulars. Colonel Leslie’s column was forced to halt while a party of soldiers repaired the structure. The Salem men won a few precious moments for the teams who were removing the cannon. But the Regulars soon improvised a surface over the bridge and crossed into Salem center, where they halted for a moment in Town House Square.

The townspeople watched as several of their Tory neighbors came forward. One was seen “whispering in the Colonel’s ear.” Then the British column started off at a quick-march, straight toward the cannon, with a large crowd of Salem men and boys walking beside them.

In their path was a drawbridge over an arm of the sea called North River. Just as the soldiers approached it, the men of Salem raised the drawbridge from the north side. There was no other way across. The troops were forced to halt at the bridge.

Colonel Leslie hurried forward, and demanded to know why the men of Salem dared to obstruct the King’s highway. They replied that the road belonged to them. The British commander “stamped and swore and ordered the bridge to be lowered at once,” threatening to open fire if he was not obeyed. Militia captain John Felt warned him, “You had better be damned than fire! You have no right to fire without further orders! If you fire you’ll all be dead men.”

The crowd began to grow. Several Salem men sat provocatively on the raised edge of the open drawbridge, dangling their feet and shouting defiantly at the Regulars, “Soldiers! Red Jackets! Lobster Coats! Cowards! Damnation to Your Government!”

While the Salem men gathered at the head of the British column, the Marblehead Regiment was mustering behind its rear. These Marblehead men were a special breed. Many were cod fishermen—rugged, weatherbeaten, hard-handed seamen who earned their living in open boats on the dangerous waters of the North Atlantic. Some were veterans of the French wars. They were as stubborn and independent as their Boston cousins, and feared no mortal power on this earth—least of all the red-coated Regulars who had invaded their town. The men of Marblehead moved into strong positions along the Salem Road, and prepared to fight. 46

It was a sharp wintry New England day. As the Regulars stood waiting in their ranks, some began to shiver in the damp cold. The men of Salem taunted them. One shouted across the river, “I should think you were all fiddlers, you shake so!” 47

In the river near the bridge were three large sailing scows called “gundalows” in the old New England dialect. Colonel Leslie noticed the boats and ordered his troops to seize them. The Salem men moved more quickly. They jumped into the boats and smashed their bottoms to keep the Regulars from using them. The soldiers ran to stop them, threatening to use their bayonets. A Salem man named Joseph Whicher, the foreman of a distillery, rose up before them and defiantly tore open his shirt, daring the troops to attack. An infuriated British soldier lunged forward and “pricked” the American’s naked chest with his bayonet. 48

The mood of the crowd began to change. They closed in around the soldiers, who pushed them back with bayonets. Suddenly, a man dressed in black moved through the throng toward Colonel Leslie, and spoke to him in a voice that demanded to be heard:

“I desire you do not fire on these innocent people.”

“Who are you?” said Colonel Leslie.

“I am Thomas Barnard, a minister of the gospel, and my mission is peace,” the clergyman replied. The two men, one in black and the other in red, began to talk. The hour was growing late—five o’clock in the evening. The winter sun was going down, and wind was cruel in the damp salt air.

Colonel Leslie had reason to be concerned, not merely for the success of his mission, but the safety of his force. Whig leader Benjamin Daland (today remembered as the Paul Revere of Salem) had galloped to Danvers with the news of the Regulars. Now he was back again, and many others with him. By five o’clock militia were streaming into Salem from as far as Amesbury, twenty-five miles to the north.

As more men poured into the town, the Salem minister proposed to the British colonel a cunning Yankee compromise—the bridge would be lowered if the Regulars promised on their honor to march only to the forge about 100 yards beyond. If they found no cannon they were to turn around and go back to their ships. Colonel Leslie was willing to accept those terms, knowing that he could accomplish nothing more at that late hour. The people of Salem were happy to agree, knowing that the cannon were safely removed.

The drawbridge came creaking down. The British soldiers marched solemnly across it, found nothing, and turned to march back again. As they started their retreat, a window flew open in a house by the road, and a young Salem woman named Sarah Tarrant thrust out her head. “Go home,” she screamed at the Regulars, “and tell your master he sent you on a fool’s errand, and has broken the peace of our Sabbath.” She added contemptuously, “Do you think we were born in the woods, to be frightened by owls?” An frustrated Regular raised his firelock and took aim at her head. Sarah Tarrant said defiantly, “Fire, if you have the courage, but I doubt it.” 49

The British troops returned ignominiously to their ship, fifes and drums playing with empty bravado. They were escorted by a vast crowd of men from Salem and Danvers and many other towns. As the column crossed into Marblehead, and the men of that community also came out of their positions and joined the procession, marching in mock-cadence beside the British troops.

As the Regulars boarded their transport and sailed away, American militiamen converged on Salem from many towns in Essex County—from Danvers and Marblehead, Beverly and Lynn End, Reading and Stoneham. When they learned that the Regulars had left empty-handed, many shared a sense of triumph that made the Imperial cause seem not evil but absurd. An American journalist commented, “It is regretted that an officer of Colonel Leslie’s worth should be obliged, in obedience to his orders, to come upon so pitiful an errand.” Even Loyalists were appalled by what had happened. Thomas Hutchinson wrote, “It is very uncertain whether he succeeded in the errand he went upon.” 50

General Gage confessed in his candid way that the mission had been a “mistake.” Worse than merely a defeat, it was received by both sides as a disgrace to British arms. Something was happening in these alarms that meant more trouble for the Imperial cause than the loss of a few cannon. When Joseph Whicher exposed his naked breast to a British bayonet, and Sarah Tarrant dared a Regular to fire “if you have the courage,” a new spirit was rising in Massachusetts. Each side tested the other’s resolve in these encounters. One side repeatedly failed that test. 51

Why it did so is a question of much importance in our story. Had General Gage been the tyrant that many New England Whigs believed him to be, the outcome might have been very different. But Thomas Gage was an English gentleman who believed in decency, moderation, liberty, and the rule of law. Here again was the agony of an old English Whig: he could not crush American resistance to British government without betraying the values which he believed that government to represent.

On the other side, Paul Revere and the Whigs of New England faced no such dilemma. Their values were consistent with their interests and their acts. That inner harmony became their outward strength.  To Read More Click  Paul Revere’s Ride